Where did the Nazi scientists go

  At 6 o’clock on September 8, 1944, the Londoners who were still asleep were awakened by a loud noise in the outer suburbs. A bomb of more than 1 ton fell from the sky and exploded on the Thames. It was not a German bomber that carried the heavy bomb, but a V-2 missile. This was the first time Hitler had used his ultimate lethal weapon in actual combat.
  In order to clarify the principle of the V-2 missile and find the scientists behind this project, in the last few months of World War II, elite agents and commandos of the Allied forces infiltrated Germany, and a fierce battle for talent behind the war began. . Their mission is to search for what Hitler called “magic weapons” and the scientists who made these weapons.
  United States first began looking for German nuclear weapons expert
  in fact, concerned about the German military and research scientist, action is the earliest Americans. In order to understand the progress of German nuclear weapons research, at the end of 1943, the US Army established a special spy team code-named “Alsos”.
  Since December 1943, the “Alsos” spy team has entered London, Rome, Paris and Germany. Soon, the “Alshos” spy team got an information: The Germans were developing a new type of explosive that was 1,000 times more powerful than yellow explosive in a spinning mill in Hessingen. Later, American postal inspectors intercepted a letter sent by the American prisoner of war from Heisingen, Germany. The letter stated that he was working hard in a laboratory where many secret agencies in Germany had moved there. Dr. Heisenberg, Germany’s most famous nuclear physicist, lives near Heisingen, and there are other German scientists in this area.
  When the war hit the German mainland, the search and arrest work became the top priority. In any case, these scientists should not be allowed to fall into the hands of the Soviets. This is the highest criterion for the work of the “Alsos” spy team.
  Important information found in the toilet in
  order to obtain information on V-2 missiles as early as possible, this responsibility over to the United States in Europe ordnance intelligence team leader Holger Rostov Troy, he invited the US Army Intelligence Agency agent Robert Major Stawell led the team to assist in the investigation.
  On March 18, 1945, the US First Infantry Division marched into Bonn on the west bank of the Rhine. Scientists at the University of Bonn began to rush to destroy the relevant materials and documents of the new weapon they were testing. They tore up these top-secret materials and put them in the toilet to flush them away. But one of the toilets was broken and the shredded paper was not washed away. At this time, the U.S. tanks were approaching the University of Bonn, and the scientists fled before they had time to deal with the remaining pieces of paper. A Polish guard in charge of the University of Bonn found the scraps of paper in the toilet. He took them out and handed them to the American soldiers who came later.
  U.S. intelligence personnel dried these shredded paper carefully and spliced ​​them together, and found that this was an important document containing a summary of German scientific research plans and the names and home addresses of more than 1,500 scientists and senior technicians. It was planned by the German Research Council The head of the bureau, Fritz Olsenberg, has carefully compiled it over the past five years. The Americans call it the “Osenberg List.” This list provided great help for the United States to find these scientists before the Soviet Union.
  Stawell compiled a wanted order based on the list, and V-2 missile chief designer von Braun became the number one wanted on the order. This year, von Braun was only 33 years old. At the same time, the US Strategic Intelligence Agency and the Joint Intelligence and Investigation Agency jointly launched the “Paperclip Operation”, sending experts to follow the US military into the German hinterland to search for missile experts, and be sure to control this “valuable wealth” before other countries.
  Hunt rocket scientist von Braun
  during the war, Hitler in the Harz mountain range in central Germany built a huge underground arsenal. In the face of failure, he concentrated a large number of scientists here, improved the jet fighter engine, and prepared for mass production of 13 tons of V-2 missiles for the final resistance.
  On the morning of April 11, 1945, the US military discovered this secret factory hidden underground. They found that the production line had not been blown up, and there were dozens of complete weapons. However, German scientists had evacuated here under the order of SS officer Hans Kamler and headed to the small town of Oberammergau in Bavaria.
  When Von Braun retreated from Penamünde to the Harz underground factory, he did not obey the order to destroy all the research materials of the V-2 missile. Instead, he took the 14 tons of precious rocket technical sketches and the V-2 missile His scientific research data was hidden in an abandoned mine in the Harz Mountains, and these data became his later bargaining chips with the Allied forces.
  On May 2, 1945, when a team of patrolling scouts from the 44th Infantry Division of the United States appeared on the outskirts of Munich, Von Braun’s brother, the rocket engineer Magnus, took the initiative to approach the 44th Infantry Division to negotiate the surrender.
  Obviously, the Magnus who was delivered to the door made Americans overjoyed. The Americans immediately agreed to his terms, and with his help found von Braun who was hiding in a mountain villa. Facing the American soldiers with live ammunition, Von Braun, who had realized that there was only one word on this day, said: “Although we have been defeated, we have created a new mode of war. You are looking for me to obtain this technology. “After Von Braun was captured, he was secretly sent to the United States along with his work team.
  After the Americans were sent to the moon
  during World War II, a total of more than 1,600 German professional and technical personnel were taken in by the United States. Some of them were Nazis and some were members of the SS. These people should have been sent to a military court for trial, but in the end they all He was bailed out and obtained a one-way ticket to the United States.
  It was not until 1979 that the U.S. Department of Justice established a special investigation office to investigate the background of these German scientists. Under pressure from the Ministry of Justice, some Nazi scientists were deported. Among them, Arthur Rudolf, who developed the V-2 missile with von Braun and later worked for the National Space Administration, returned to Germany in 1984. Giving up his American citizenship, he was accused of using slave labor in the war.
  Once Von Braun arrived in the United States, he was placed in the U.S. Army Equipment Design and Research Bureau. In 1955, he became a citizen of the United States, and then led the design of the American Jupiter-C sounding rocket, which finally successfully sent the first western artificial satellite “Explorer 1” into space in 1958. In 1961, von Braun became the President’s scientific adviser to the United States. In July 1969, American astronauts successfully landed on the moon, which meant that the United States won the final victory in the space race with the Soviet Union. The “Saturn 5” launch vehicle that sent astronauts to the moon was designed by von Braun.