Depression is currently a common mental illness. In the past 30 years, the incidence of depression in my country has increased by more than 10 times. At present, the incidence of depression is still showing an upward trend. However, due to the relatively high difficulty in identifying depression, the world health Organization related reports show that there are about 350 million depression patients worldwide, but more than 90% of depression patients have not received effective treatment.
1 Overview of depression
Depression is the most common psychiatric disease, and it is also a common mood disorder in clinical summary. This disease is closely related to factors such as genetics, cytokines, sex hormones, neurotrophic factors, etc. Relevant studies have shown that the incidence of depression worldwide At around 4.4%, the incidence of depression in my country is about (4.2±1.9)%. Due to the rising pace of life and work stress in recent years, the incidence of depression has increased. According to the current report, the incidence of depression in my country is between 3% and 5%, but some reports indicate that the incidence of depression has already As high as 6.1%. Depression is one of the fourth most common diseases in the world. Its recognition rate is relatively low. Affected by depression, patients are more likely to have suicide, self-harm and other problems.
2 Clinical manifestations of depression
Mild depression is mainly manifested as low mood, its mood is not equal to the situation, and its condition is closely related to the patient’s mood and mood. Patients with major depression are characterized by low self-esteem and world-weariness, and most patients with major depression have suicidal behaviors or suicide attempts. Most patients with depression have recurrent episodes. Clinically, it can be seen that some patients have symptoms such as slowed thinking speed, hallucinations, and stupor.
3 Depression treatment methods
3.1 Duloxetine in the treatment of depression
Duloxetine can inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine inhibitors in patients with depression, can selectively inhibit serotonin receptors, and intervene in the reuptake of norepinephrine. Increase the concentration of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain tissue and spinal cord tissue of patients. Because serotonin and norepinephrine have an impact on human pain, the application of duloxetine treatment will increase the patient’s pain tolerance, and can also alleviate the symptoms of depression to a certain extent.
3.2 Paroxetine in the treatment of depression
Paroxetine is a phenylpyridine-derived drug. After oral administration, patients can block the uptake of serotonin at their neuronal synapses, increase the serotonin in the synaptic cleft in the brain, and thus have an antidepressant effect. . The advantage of paroxetine is that although it can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin at neuronal synapses, it will not affect the patient’s cholinergic receptor function, thereby reducing the incidence of adverse reactions. The main adverse reactions of paroxetine include profuse sweating, dry mouth, insomnia, etc., but the degree of symptoms is relatively mild, and usually relieves spontaneously after stopping the drug.
3.3 Escitalopram in the treatment of depression
Escitalopram is one of the active ingredients of racemic mixture drugs. Similar to sertraline, escitalopram is also a serotonin reinhibitor, which can increase the serotonin level in patients. In addition, after entering the patient’s body, escitalopram can organically bind with serotonin binding sites and allosteric sites, thereby inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin in the presynaptic membrane of cells. Escitalopram has a relatively low impact on the potassium and sodium pathways, so it will not cause abnormalities in the patient’s cardiovascular system, and its drug safety level is high. Therefore, escitalopram can be used in the treatment of elderly depression patients in clinical practice. Because of its low incidence of adverse drug reactions, it can be used for long-term treatment.
3.4 Mirtazapine in the treatment of depression
Mirtazapine is one of the dual-channel antidepressant drugs. After entering the patient’s body, it can increase the level of norepinephrine in the patient’s body, thereby promoting the release of serotonin, blocking the central nervous system α2-adrenergic receptor, and exerting Anti-depressant effect. Studies have shown that by administering mirtazapine to treat depression, among many new antidepressants, mirtazapine is currently the only one that can target patients with H1 receptor antagonism, play a sedative effect, and at the same time promote depression It has a significant effect on appetite.
3.5 Sertraline in the treatment of depression
Sertraline is a simple serotonin reuptake inhibitor with strong selectivity. It can increase the concentration of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, thereby alleviating the symptoms of depression in patients. Generally speaking, sertraline is effective in improving symptoms of depression and depression, and can reduce depression and anxiety symptoms, and has relatively high drug tolerance. It can be used in combination with a variety of drugs. In addition, sertraline has a relatively small affinity for cholinergic receptors and histamine receptors in patients with depression. Therefore, the incidence of adverse drug reactions is relatively low, usually including nausea, dry mouth, and insomnia.
To sum up, the clinical incidence of depression is relatively high. At present, most patients with depression are treated with drugs, which can improve the symptoms of patients to a certain extent, but the incidence of adverse drug reactions increases accordingly. It should be based on the actual situation of patients. Choose the drug according to the situation.