Understanding biodiversity

Biodiversity is now a widely used concept, not only being talked about by the public, but also widely seen in various media. But what exactly is biodiversity? Like many scientific concepts, the connotation of biodiversity is very broad, and there is no strict and unified definition yet. Biodiversity in a broad sense includes biodiversity in a narrow sense and its related humanities and cultural factors. Biodiversity in the narrow sense is used to reflect the process and result of a stable ecological complex formed by various elements in the natural ecological environment within a specific range. These elements are merged through specific ecological laws to form the interaction between organisms and between organisms and the environment. The elements of biodiversity mainly include diverse organisms and abiotic environments.

Species diversity is the core and key of biological diversity. It includes the abundance and uniformity of biological species within a certain range. Abundance refers to the abundance of species in a region, also known as regional species diversity. The degree of uniformity refers to the spread of species in ecology, and is also called community species diversity. Genetic polymorphism is an important part of biodiversity. Broadly speaking, it refers to the sum of genetic information carried by all organisms on the earth. Generally speaking, the more abundant genes a species carries, the more the species has an impact on the environment. The stronger the adaptability. Ecosystem reflects the natural complex formed by the continuous interaction between organisms and the environment on which they depend. Ecosystem diversity refers to the diversity of the composition and function of ecosystems and the diversity of various ecological processes on the earth.

Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity is the micro basis for the existence of biological diversity. The genetic differences of different species and different individuals of the same species belong to the category of genetic diversity. In a broad sense, genetic diversity refers to the sum of genetic information carried by all living things on the earth. The important significance of genetic diversity is that the more abundant genes a species carries, the more it can adapt to the environment. Genetic diversity can reflect genetic changes within a species, including genetic variation formed by the same species distributed in two isolated geographical areas, or genetic variation between different individuals in a single population distributed in the same area. The main sources of intraspecies genetic variation are gene mutation, gene recombination and chromosome aberration, and the most fundamental is gene mutation, which is the molecular mechanism of all biodiversity. Genetic diversity is genetic variation within a species, including genetic variation between two isolated geographic populations within a species and between individuals within a single population. This genetic variation is usually measured from three aspects: the number and percentage of polytypes in population genes; the number of alleles for each polytype gene; the number and percentage of polytype genes in each individual. The main sources of intraspecies genetic variation are mutation, recombination and chromosomal aberration, and the most fundamental is mutation, which is the root of all biodiversity.

Species diversity
Biodiversity at the species level is species diversity, which refers to the diversification of species in an area, mainly from the perspectives of taxonomy, systematics and biogeography to study the status of species in a certain area, that is, the status of species diversity (Including threatened conditions), the formation, evolution and maintenance mechanisms of species diversity, etc. Species diversity is diversity at the species level, and is the core and key of biodiversity. It is the study of all species or individual life, roughly divided into the types of animals, plants and microorganisms. Analyzing the diversity of species is usually carried out from different temporal and spatial distributions. Analyzing the significance of species diversity in space requires studying the distribution characteristics of space. The richness and uniformity of species are two commonly used measurement indicators. The abundance refers to the abundance of biological species in an area, usually from the form of species. Structure differentiation and statistics, sometimes it is necessary to compare the differences in species composition in different geographic environments, also known as regional species diversity. The degree of uniformity is the spread of species, which includes the structure and composition of species in a certain geographic space, which is also called community species diversity. Analyzing species diversity on a time scale mainly discusses the laws of species changes over time. Since the history of species includes the processes of origin, development, reduction, and extinction, it is possible to explore the laws of change of existing species that may allow us to understand their origin and The history of development, the mechanism of rare and endangered, and the study of the entire process of extinct species will help to understand the evolution of species on earth.

In addition, the endangerment status of species, the rate and reasons for extinction, the peculiarities of biota, how to effectively protect and sustain the use of species are all the content of species diversity research. In a general sense, the biological Diversity issues refer to species diversity, such as the loss and causes of species, the protection of endangered species, the establishment of nature reserves, and so on. It is estimated that there are about 3-50 million species of living things in the world today. my country is one of the countries with extremely rich species diversity in the world, ranking 8th in the world. However, my country is also a country where biodiversity is seriously threatened. According to the “Research Report on National Conditions of Biodiversity in China”, the number of threatened species in my country is 5% to 7% higher than that in the world; the forest area has decreased sharply, 50% of grassland has been degraded, and water pollution has reached more than 80%; farm species and wild relatives The genetic diversity of species is lost quickly.

Ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem is a complex ecological complex formed through interaction on the earth. The complex itself and the process of formation belong to the category of biodiversity. As a complex ecological complex, it includes tens of thousands of animals, plants, microorganisms and their genes, as well as the complex ecosystem formed by them and the living environment. It refers to all the mutations of life on earth. The result of biological evolution. Ecosystem reflects the natural complex formed by the continuous interaction between organisms and the environment on which they depend. Ecosystem diversity mainly includes community diversity and ecosystem diversity. The former studies the diversity of the structure, composition and interaction of different communities from the community, while the latter studies the diversity of ecosystems on a large scale, such as subtropical forests. Ecosystems, tropical forest ecosystems, cold-temperate forest ecosystems, alpine meadow ecosystems and other different ecosystem types. The habitat mainly refers to the inorganic environment that constitutes one of the elements of the ecosystem, including topography, landforms, climate, soil and hydrology. It is not only the basic condition for the formation of biological communities and even ecosystems, but the diversity of habitats also affects the diversity of ecosystems to a certain extent. The diversity of biological communities includes various living biological communities, and the multi-level interactions and dynamic changes between communities. Ecological processes refer to changes in the composition, structure and function of ecosystems on time scales, which are also an important aspect of ecosystem research.

Differences and connections between species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity
There are differences and connections between species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Genetic diversity is the basis for supporting species diversity and ecosystem diversity, and species diversity is the basic element of ecosystem diversity. Therefore, the diversity of ecosystems cannot exist without species diversity and genetic diversity. Biodiversity is the result of billions of years of continuous evolution and development of life on earth. It is the basis for human survival and development. To protect biodiversity is to protect humans themselves. However, unscientific and unreasonable human activities have led to the extinction of earth species at an alarming rate, which will directly “erode the foundation of the global economy, livelihoods, food security, health and quality of life.”

Landscape diversity
In addition to species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity, some scholars also put forward the concept of landscape diversity. Landscape diversity refers to the diversification or variability of the landscape composed of different types of landscape elements or ecosystems in terms of spatial structure, functional mechanism, and time dynamics. The landscape is a large-scale macro system composed of interacting landscape elements. , With a high degree of spatial heterogeneity. Landscape elements are the basic units that make up the landscape, which is equivalent to an ecosystem. According to the difference in shape, the landscape elements can be divided into: inlays, corridors and substrates. In recent years, the study of landscape diversity has received more and more attention, especially in the protection of landscape pattern and biodiversity, the impact of fragmentation of habitats (especially forests) on biodiversity, and the heterogeneity of landscapes. The measurement of landscape diversity, the impact of human activities on landscape diversity, and landscape planning and management have attracted widespread attention. Biodiversity at different levels is interconnected and inseparable. Diversity at a higher level It is the genetic diversity formed by the different combinations of lower-level life entities that lead to the diversity of species. The combination of different forms of species determines the diversity of biological communities and even ecosystems. In all levels of biological diversity, Species diversity is the most basic. It is not only that individual species are organic units that carry various life phenomena, but also that species are the key link in the spectrum of diversity from micro to macro.