The toilet university you don’t know

  After entering the modern society, toilets all over the world have basically realized the same world, regardless of the cleanliness and the completeness of the facilities, ancient toilets are beyond the reach. Many friends once said that traveling back to ancient times is a very interesting thing, but when thinking about the problem of going to the toilet, they decided to stay in the modern age.
  The spatial form and basic facilities of modern toilets are derived from the West.
  More than 4,000 years ago, toilets with drains and reservoirs appeared on the ancient Greek island of Crete. In ancient Rome, the secular life in Europe was very developed, the toilets were also relatively advanced, with good water supply and drainage facilities, murals on the walls, and even special places to worship the toilet gods. At that time, the toilet was an important social space for the citizens. It was often set up in a spacious hall, surrounded by stone benches, which looked like benches in a waiting hall. There were round holes on the benches without any obstruction. , Mighty, you can sit down calmly, and slowly exchange feelings with the left and right toilet friends, the atmosphere is similar to today’s coffee shop.
  In the Middle Ages, European civilization declined for a while, and toilets also experienced a great regression. People began to pay attention to privacy and stopped going to public toilets to meet and chat. Some castles and monasteries would set up hidden toilets in the gaps between the towers. The facilities were not as good as before. There were no water pipes and no septic tanks, and the dirt generally flowed directly into the moat. Many poor people have no toilets at all, and they often take their own convenience in the wild or by the river. The dirty and dirty environment became one of the important reasons for the epidemic in Europe in the 14th century.
  In the 17th century, the Palace of Versailles built by French King Louis XIV was magnificent and magnificent. It is said that no toilets were set up for guests. As a result, the noble men and women who came as guests were often forced to go to the garden to solve the problems, and the flowers and plants were nourished. , More fresh and vivid. In fact, a wooden toilet appeared in European courts at that time. It looked like a high-backed chair with armrests on both sides, but it was not popular.
  Paris, known as the “city of flowers,” until the beginning of the 18th century, family toilets were still rare. People used a simple toilet similar to a Chinese toilet to pour dirt from the window on the street, making the city smell extremely unpleasant . Some people have verified that the reason why French perfume is so developed is the inevitable result of its underdeveloped toilet.
  In the middle of the 18th century, the Enlightenment movement emerged in Europe, and social and cultural changes took place. Clean and sanitary toilets were regarded as a symbol of progress and a necessity for a healthy life, and they gradually moved towards perfection. The bathroom has become an indispensable part of the house as well as the living room, bedroom, and kitchen, and is integrated with the bathroom.
  The invention of the flush toilet can be said to be one of the greatest achievements in the history of human civilization. It is difficult to examine when the flush toilet officially appeared. It is said that Sir John Harrington of England produced the first flush toilet in 1596. Later watchmaker Alexander Cumming and craftsman Joseph Bramer successively built on this basis. Made great improvements.
  By the end of the 19th century, British plumber Thomas Kleipa had combined the toilet with an advanced flushing system. This product was not essentially different from the flush toilets used today. The flush toilet and subsequent urinals have a huge impact on human life, and later the French experimentalist pioneer artist Marcel Duchamp signed a urinal bought from a store with his name and displayed it in the famous art as his classic sculpture. The museum was named “Spring” and became an important event in the history of modern art.
  The real evolution of the toilet does not lie in the specific shape of the toilet and the building, but depends on whether there is a complete flushing and drainage system, and whether it meets the standards of cleanliness and hygiene. Since the 20th century, toilet facilities have been further standardized, and their space has also tended to be simplified, with more emphasis on practicality, convenience, and easy cleaning. It can even be prefabricated into special modules and directly inserted into a house.
  Whether for a city, a school district, a building, or a house, toilets are a big problem that cannot be ignored. A small toilet can be blocked for a long time to disrupt people’s normal life. A messy toilet can also completely subvert people’s impression of a city or a region.
  The toilet itself is a social phenomenon, but also a special carrier of culture. In 2001, the World Toilet Organization (World Toilet Organization), referred to as WTO, was established in Singapore in 2001, which is the same abbreviation as the World Trade Organization (WTO). The association has many member states and regularly holds summits, trying to promote a clean, comfortable and healthy toilet culture around the world, which has a great impact. In 2013, the United Nations General Assembly formally agreed to the association’s proposal to designate November 19 each year as “World Toilet Day.”
  There is a famous golden toilet on Man Lok Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is made of gold, diamonds, natural gems and pearls with high technology. It is not only magnificent, but also equipped with advanced automatic washing, drying equipment and filtering system. Customers need to purchase 3000 Hong Kong dollars. The gold ornaments can be enjoyed once. If the toilet reaches this level, I am afraid it will go to the other extreme, which is of the nature of show. Such mighty toilets are enough to impress many developed foreign cities.
  A kind of fully automatic closed public toilet is more popular in Europe. It requires coin to use for about 20 minutes. The space is not large. The equipment inside is very advanced, saving water and energy. If the time exceeds 20 minutes, the door will automatically open. Public broadcast your ARTISTRY in the toilet. Many years ago, a French friend once presented two such toilets to the Beijing Municipal Government. I remember that one of them was placed in Zizhuyuan Park. I appreciate such practical and convenient toilets, but it is best not to charge.
  Occasionally, the toilet culture is deliberately promoted and enlarged, becoming a form of curiosity. For example, South Korean Congressman Shen Jae-de is one of the founders of the World Toilet Association. He was born in a toilet because of his extraordinary talent. To commemorate, he invested 1.6 million US dollars to build a toilet-shaped residence in his hometown of Suwon. In addition to the living room and four bedrooms, he deliberately set up three high-standard bathrooms. This Mr. Shen welcomes everyone to rent this peculiar house, and uses the rent for the renovation of clean toilets around the world.
  The World Toilet Association once selected the “Top Ten Toilets in the World”, and most of these toilets are of a rather peculiar form. Number one is a simple toilet next to the South Pole, which is recognized as the most “cold” toilet in the world. The toilet in the Taj Mahal, a famous monument in India, ranks second. It has been built for 22 years. It is said that it can be cleaned without flushing, and it is eco-friendly. In addition, toilets such as the “Millennium” toilet in London and the Wisconsin Arts Center toilet in the United States are also on the list.
  There is a “toilet culture restaurant” in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. All the stools are presented in the shape of a flush toilet, and a container shaped like a urinal is used to hold food. Promoting toilet culture in this way is suspected of turning upside down. It is a spoof, but it is said that business is booming, and recently some restaurants in Beijing have begun to follow suit.
  The toilet is a place not to stay for a long time. In addition to being convenient for people, or combining with the bathroom, it does not need to have other functions, and it does not make much sense to make it too complicated. Ouyang Xiu, a well-known official of the Song Dynasty, said in “Returning to the Field” that the most suitable place for reading is the so-called “three places”, that is, “immediately, on the bed, on the toilet.” It seems that the toilet can be used as a study room. But modern medical research has proven that reading while going to the toilet is not a healthy lifestyle.