Spark and Lighthouse

Twenty-two years after Jian’an, stagnation prevailed. Every family has the pain of zombies, the room has a cry of mourning, or close the door and die, or cover the clan and die. Or think the epidemic, ghosts and gods did. If the husband suffers from this, he will be the ear of the son of Brown Ruhuo, the ear of the Penghu of Jingshi! Ruofu Palace is the home of Ding Shi, the door of heavy mink is tired, if it is fresh! This is the yin and yang dislocation. And Yumin Xuanfu hates, can laugh.

Translation

Twenty-two years after Jian’an, the epidemic was prevalent. Every household echoed the sound of sorrow for losing their loved ones, some of the whole family died, and some of the whole family died. Some people think that the disease is caused by ghosts and gods. But those who are ill are all poor children who wear denim shorts, eat bean leaves, and live in a hut! As for those noblemen who lived in Huawu, Lie Ding while eating, wearing mink fur, and laying bedding, very few got the disease! The epidemic occurred because the yin and yang lost their proper order of positions and were hot and cold. But it’s ridiculous for uncultivated people to hang the traps to suppress the epidemic.

In ancient China, a widespread malignant infectious disease that caused people to die was called “the plague” or “epidemic disease”. In the long historical process, the epidemic has brought a lot of suffering to the hardworking and simple Chinese people.

The short article “Speaking of Epidemic Diseases” was written by Cao Zhi, a writer of the Three Kingdoms period. What he recorded in the article was a major epidemic that occurred during the Jian’an period.

During the period of the Three Kingdoms, the world was divided into three and the flames were rising, and the struggle between the major political forces was inevitable. After the Battle of Chibi, the hero Cao Cao was not discouraged, and actively practiced the naval forces, opening up the fields and seeking talents. This set of measures has worked very well. Cao Cao walked out of the defeated cloud and defeated Ma Chao, Sun Quan, and Zhang Lu one after another. The morale was quite strong.

In 217 AD, Cao Cao once again conquered Sun Quan and sent troops to the northeast of today’s Chaohu City in Anhui Province. After the fierce battle, Sun Quan lost, and Cao Cao led the army back home, ordering Xiahou Dun, Cao Ren, Zhang Liao, Sima Lang and other generals to lead the remaining soldiers to stay.

Unexpectedly, at this moment, a terrible epidemic spread rapidly among the remaining sergeants. Sima Lang personally visited, but unfortunately contracted the disease and died.

After that, the epidemic spread like fire, harvesting innocent lives and causing an unprecedented catastrophe. As Cao Zhi described in the short essay, the cry of the lost loved ones echoed on the desolate earth, and cases of the whole family and even the whole family died from illness. The seven sons of Jian’an who occupy a place in the history of literature, in addition to Kong Rong and Ruan Yuan, who died in the early years, all five people including Wang Can, Xu Gan, Chen Lin, Liu Zhen, and Ying Zhen died of the epidemic, causing great losses in the history of literature. .

In the same way, the epidemic that was widely involved in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties also brought huge disasters to the entire country.

In 1618 AD, heavy snow fell in Guangdong, and the fourth “Little Ice Age” kicked off. After that, the persistent low temperature and drought invaded thousands of miles of land, and food production was reduced on a large scale. No matter people or rats, they were caught in a food and water shortage situation, and the number of migrant refugees increased sharply.

Rats with Y. pestis also migrated collectively, and a larger number of mice entered human settlements. Afterwards, Yersinia pestis was transmitted to refugees through fleas that lived on mice, and the movement of refugees spread the disease to more places. A large-scale epidemic spread throughout the country.

According to historical records, at that time in the capital alone, the number of deaths was so high that no one could collect the corpse-“death is dead, ten rooms and nine empty, even the households are exhausted, and no one converges.” Such a painful loss was given. The Ming Dynasty was hit hard. According to a historian from the Ming Dynasty, at least 200,000 people died from the epidemic until Li Zicheng broke through the capital, accounting for one-fifth to one-quarter of the total population of the capital at that time. One hundred thousand people fell sharply to 50,000 people, so the morale was greatly reduced and the army could not be defeated.

Therefore, when Li Zicheng led the rebel army into the capital, he was faced with a “ghost city” where “people and ghosts are intricate, and people are afraid to walk”. Li Zicheng was not able to escape the shadow of the epidemic. He was entrenched in the capital only for 42 days. Under the attack of the coalition forces of Dorgon and Wu Sangui, he quit rashly. Some historians believe that Li Zicheng’s defeat so quickly has nothing to do with his army’s infection.

In the ancient times when science and technology were not well developed, once a large-scale outbreak occurred, it was easy to cause serious consequences. The ancients had no masks, protective clothing, alcohol or disinfectant, and they seemed vulnerable to the cunning virus.

But the wise and simple Chinese nation has never given up. Whether it is an excellent doctor who is proficient in medical treatment, or an ordinary ordinary person, he is using his ingenuity to fight against terrible diseases.

Their cleverness is first manifested in the fact that ancient China had a wealth of ideas to prevent epidemic situations.

The Book of Changes, which was written more than 2,000 years ago, once stated: The outbreak of the epidemic caused large-scale deaths, panic, and escape. What should we do at this time? The first is “do not leave the house”, as long as you don’t move around, the epidemic will not spread everywhere, and the number of infections will decrease accordingly; the second is “do not eat well” and “do not try medicine”, pay attention to food hygiene It is possible to achieve the final victory only by taking medicine indiscriminately.

Are these instructions very similar to the precautions we know today?

In the late Ming Dynasty, Wu Youxing’s “The Epidemic of Warm Epidemic Disease” analyzed the epidemic disease in more detail. He believes that epidemic disease is different from typhoid fever, and it originates from a kind of “outcry” between heaven and earth. There are two ways of spreading this kind of “qi”, one is infection through the natural environment, and the other is infection through contact with patients. Although the mode of transmission is different, “danger” enters the human body through the mouth and nose, endangering human health. This kind of “rebellion” is contagious and popular, and it is difficult to prevent it. You see, although Wu Youxing did not know the existence of the virus, the analysis of the transmission route and the infection route is very close to the theory of modern medicine.

In addition to concepts and theories, the wisdom of the ancients was also reflected in the emphasis on epidemics. As the supreme ruler of the country, the emperor attached great importance to the disease. When encountering an epidemic, most emperors would issue edicts to appease officials and people. In addition, some emperors will order officials to save money and relieve the sick civilians; some emperors will order the court to organize free medical consultations, including medical expenses as the expenses of the court; some emperors will also take out the precious medicines in the palace Save the patient. According to “Song History”, one year, a large-scale epidemic broke out in the capital. The royal palace has a key medicinal material for treating the epidemic-Tongtianxi. Emperor Song Renzong ordered that this precious medicinal material be distributed to the people to help the people cure the disease. Nei Shi persuaded him not to do this, and left the herbs to himself. Song Renzong sternly refused, thinking that he could not hide precious medicinal materials regardless of the people, and ordered a doctor who was proficient in medical science to go to the county office to understand the condition and give the medicinal materials so that it would not be wasted by quacks.

The emperor attached importance to it, and the court naturally dared not take it easy. The court strictly urged local officials to report the epidemic in time. Both “Mingshi” and “Qingshi Draft” have detailed records of epidemic data.

Local officials not only attached importance to the epidemic, but also worked hard to deal with the epidemic.

In 1089 AD, the densely populated Hangzhou area caused epidemics due to successive years of disasters. The patient developed symptoms such as cold hands and feet, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, and swollen limbs. Many people died without treatment. It was at this time that Su Shi was transferred to Zhizhou, Hangzhou, where he faced a diseased area in Hangzhou. Su Shi showed the qualities that a noble and capable scholar-bureaucrat official should have. He took the lead and took out his savings. . Later, Su Shi took out the family secret recipe “Sheng San Zi Fang” donated by his best friend, and gave it to the famous doctor who came to the clinic to cure many patients. According to records, Su Shi’s two years in the Hangzhou area, healed the poor and applied porridge medicine, saving more than a thousand lives.

In addition to paying attention to the epidemic situation in attitude, the wisdom accumulated over the past dynasties has also allowed people to successfully figure out some effective measures against the epidemic.

Such as isolation treatment. After people realize that the epidemic is infectious, they will isolate the infectious patients. According to archaeological findings, the “ill-moving square” established during the Han Dynasty and the “patient square” established during the Tang Dynasty were used to isolate and treat leprosy patients, while the “Bietian Yangzhen Square” established during the Wu Zetian period was directly managed by the court, showing The importance of cutting off the source of infection is high.

For example, the establishment of an epidemic prevention management system. Since ancient times, China has been a country with very frequent foreign exchanges, and many infectious diseases will spread into China from abroad. At this time, it is particularly important to establish a perfect national epidemic prevention management system. The “closing clinic”, one of the bamboo slips of the Qin tomb of Sleeping Tiger Land, can prove that as early as the Warring States period, China already had a system for reporting infection cases and investigating suspicious cases step by step. The Qing Dynasty’s “Hai Lu” records that any ship that has been to a foreign country must first send an officer to check the health status of the ship’s personnel. If the body is abnormal, this person is not allowed to enter the port.

Such as drug disinfection. In ancient times, people also found some simple and feasible disinfection methods. According to relevant historical records, during the Warring States period, all guests who entered the Qin Kingdom must be smoked in order to achieve disinfection and epidemic prevention.

In the long course of history, this ancient land has suffered a lot of illnesses, but the Chinese nation that never gave up has never been afraid and flinched. With its simple wisdom and strong spirit, it has overcome the threats from epidemics again and again. Pass on the great civilization and immortal spirit.

Today, with advanced technology, we have no reason to back down. The monofilament does not make a thread, the single tree does not make a forest, we each light a spark, and finally, the lighthouse in the dark night will be lit, and the light of dawn will awaken a new life.

You see, the lighthouse is shining.