of bacteria is causing many health problems and hatcheries mainly due to a variety of important diseases caused by the breeder. Before discussing specific details, let’s get a general understanding of the basic situation of bacteria.
Bacteria are tiny single-celled organisms that thrive in various environments. These organisms generally live in soil, water, and the digestive tracts of humans and animals. Sometimes they also live in special environments, such as geysers and hot springs in New Zealand and California. There are many different types of bacteria, and no one type of bacteria can adapt to all habitats. Over time, bacteria continue to evolve and colonize different specific habitats.
The relationship between humans and bacteria is complex. Sometimes bacteria are beneficial, such as bacteria in septic tanks, in the production of antibiotics, and in the production of yogurt; sometimes they may cause harm to humans, such as bacteria in the process of rotting and spoiled food can cause tetanus and some pneumonia, etc. disease. Bacteria may also be carriers of certain antibiotic resistance genes.
Bacteria can be regarded as tiny animals with all the biological functions of large animals, including digestion, respiration, reproduction, processing, exercise, and waste disposal.
bacteria belonging to the prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms without a nucleus. Their DNA either floats freely in the form of twisted linear clumps or exists in separate circular fragments of plasmids. Ribosomes in bacterial cells can use coding information to assemble amino acids into proteins.
There are usually two protective layers around bacteria, the cell wall and the cell membrane. Some bacteria have no cell wall, such as mycoplasma. Mycoplasma is related to some important diseases in breeders.
Some bacteria have a third membrane, the outermost membrane, called the capsule. Many bacteria have different lengths of whip-like appendages on the surface. The longer ones are called flagella and the shorter ones are called fimbriae. These structures can help bacteria move (usually in a water film) and attach to surfaces.
The cell wall plays a key role in the Gram staining method. Gram staining distinguishes bacteria based on the structure of the cell wall. The bacteria that are stained purple are gram-positive bacteria, and those that are decolorized by ethanol and counter-stained red are gram-negative bacteria.
Because of the primitive tools, early scientists were limited in the study of bacteria. In fact, they only have one tool, an optical microscope, so they can only observe the shape of bacteria. Many of the bacteria originally observed were named after their shape. These names include “coccus” (used for bacteria that look like small spheres under the microscope) and “bacilli” (used for bacteria that look like rods under the microscope). These words can be logically combined with words such as “grape-shaped” and “chain-shaped”.
, we can detect a variety of means to determine the presence or breeder hatcheries bacteria, and gives the number of bacteria. The purpose of testing for microorganisms in the hatchery is to determine whether the visible cleaning is also at the microbiological level. It can be inferred from logic that if there are obvious stains or smudges on certain parts, then it must also contaminate microorganisms. Therefore, before detecting microorganisms, it is necessary to check first to find out the dirty parts or confirm that all parts are visible and clean.
2.1 determine the target
before the start of the detection of microorganisms, it is important to first determine the target detection. This will seriously affect the type and quantity of samples collected, as well as the type and quantity of swabs or other sampling packages required, as well as the detection time. It is not necessary to take samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning before the cleaning is completely completed. In addition, the content of the test is also very important. If you want to assess the overall cleanliness of the hatchery, you can use a swab to count bacteria, but if you want to assess the contamination of Salmonella or Aspergillus, it is best to use a sample of fluff from the incubator.
2.2 Select laboratory
first need to determine the completion of laboratory testing work. To this end, clear selection criteria are required. These criteria may include:
● Laboratory qualifications and specific tests that can be completed;
● Experience or ability to complete the required tests;
● Know the relevant knowledge of the hatchery and have relevant work experience;
● Determine when and how to receive the report;
● Carry out statutory testing and trade or export When testing, the government’s recognition of the laboratory results;
● The incubator’s acceptance of the laboratory results in the certification body.
Identify the sampling personnel (hatchery staff, laboratory staff, company quality inspectors or veterinarian team members). Regardless of who is assigned to complete the work, two things are important. First, they need tools to complete the job; second, they need training. As far as tools are concerned, it is important to check whether the tools or equipment are complete, and to prepare one or two extra spare parts to prevent accidents.
2.3 things to know
first of all to understand the cleanliness of detection sites, the total number of viable cells can use this parameter. Second, we must understand the stool indicator and quantity. These indicators can show the presence of other bacteria and viruses in the stool, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Newcastle Disease Virus and Reovirus. The stool indicator can also show the presence of non-avian stools, such as stools from rats, mice, lizards, insects, dogs, cats, and humans. Typical stool indicators are coliforms, Enterobacter and Streptococcus faecalis. Third, we must understand the characteristics of important bacteria in poultry, such as salmonella and staphylococcus.
3 detection of bacteria
of the bacteria culture was grown bacteria multiply and produce a sufficient number of bacterial pure for further testing. For this reason, we provide ideal growth conditions for bacteria-nutrition and water supply, suitable temperature and protection from adversity. For some bacteria, different environments need to be provided, such as anaerobic or microaerobic environments. Bacteria usually grow under aerobic conditions.
Bacteria grow on the agar layer at the bottom of the culture plate. Agar contains nutrients and water needed for bacterial growth. Spread the sample suspected of containing bacteria on the surface of the agar layer, and then place the culture plate in the incubator at the specified temperature and incubate it for 24 h or more. Bacteria grow and multiply quickly when they are in ideal growth conditions. When it can be seen with the naked eye, it is called a colony.
plates generally obtained cultures containing different colonies (bacteria). We need to further purify it, and we can select a typical colony for subculture. The method is to pick a colony from the culture plate and transfer it to another culture plate for streaking. Streak culture is a method of diluting bacteria by scoring on a culture plate. It can produce a single pure colony in the strip, and these pure colonies can be used for further research.
3.3 Bacteria count
In many cases we need to know the number of bacteria. To this end, we take a known number of samples and put them in a known volume of sterile diluent. If 1.0 g of the sample is put into 9.0 mL of diluent, and then 1.0 mL of the resulting solution is spread on the culture plate, each colony produced is equivalent to 10 bacteria in the tested sample. Therefore, if we get 4 or 21 colonies on the culture plate, the number of bacteria in the sample is 40 or 210. If you take 1.0 mL of this solution and add it to another 9.0 mL diluent, you will get a 100-fold diluted solution, and the bacterial count will be 400 or 2 100, respectively. Repeat this step until you get millions or billions of bacteria counts.
3.4 microbiological testing
of microorganisms for the detection of the primary breeder and hatchery, to determine whether the presence of bacteria and (or) fungi. This process usually requires two items to be tested. First, carry out routine screening of all microorganisms present as a general indicator of microbial cleanliness. This is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning procedures. Secondly, screen a specific microorganism, such as Salmonella or Aspergillus fumigatus, as part of the troubleshooting (for example, Aspergillus fumigatus can be used to detect the health of 1-day-old chicks or breeder flocks.
Before going into details, let’s understand the relevant Some routine issues of sanitary testing. This can be used to determine whether the visible cleanliness is contaminated with microorganisms. For example, if we have seen that the area to be tested is dirty, then it will not make sense to spend money to detect microorganisms. This highlights the importance of visual assessment .
3.5 evaluated visually
evaluated visually that you will see in the written report. this requires a systematic approach to ensure that all see the contents are covered. At present it is wise to assess when to carry a digital camera , Take photos of everything you see. These photos are very useful when editing evaluation reports or when giving feedback to hatchery and breeder management or staff.
A score can be given to each item of the hatchery tested, and these scores can be used for trend analysis. In addition, these scores can also be added together to create a hygiene index to give the overall hygiene of the hatchery. The hygiene index can also be used for trend analysis.
3.6 microbes assess
the microbiological evaluation, we need qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteria present. These assessments are divided into two types. First, evaluate the total number of bacteria present, for example, to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning programs or disinfectants; second, determine whether there are specific microorganisms, such as Salmonella or Aspergillus fumigatus, to determine the contamination status of the breeder farm or hatchery.
The requirements for microbiological testing include: determine the purpose of the test; determine the testing laboratory; determine the microorganisms to be tested; determine the report recipient; determine the sample collector; ensure that the equipment, swabs, containers, and markers required for the test are complete; ensure everyone All know about the upcoming test; determine the sample collection, processing and storage methods, and how to transport to the laboratory; determine the person in charge of the follow-up work.
3.7 microbiological testing
microbiological testing, i.e. determining microbiologically clean microorganism is visually clean. This involves two key stages: sample collection and laboratory testing. We will detect the following:
● Important bacteria related to specific problems, such as Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Aspergillus.
● If microorganisms that are normally only found in feces are detected, then the sample is contaminated with feces. These bacteria include Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter.
● The total number of live bacteria refers to the total number of all bacteria (good bacteria and harmful bacteria) together. This is a good indicator of regular cleaning and cleaning results.
● Bacteria that indicate problems with specific personnel or products, such as Staphylococcus aureus.
You need to know where the bacteria are most likely to hide. The philosophy we follow is to find the root cause of the problems in order to correct them and push the hatchery standards forward. Through testing, we know that the surface of the facility equipment is very clean and free of bacteria.
Before considering specific sampling methods, we need to understand some general points of sample collection. First, any tools used to collect samples must be sterile. If we soil the swab, for example, drop it on the floor, we must throw it away. Secondly, each swab must be clearly marked with the area to be wiped, and each sample must be marked with the type and source, such as “fluff, incubator, No. 23”.
A simple method is to uniquely number each swab and sample, then list these numbers on the submission form and specify what each sample is.
Currently, two wiping techniques are mainly used-swabs with wooden poles and gauze swabs. If we want to count the number of bacteria, we can report the results per swab or per square centimeter.
When counting, make sure that the detected area is flat. The wiped area is usually 9 cm2 or 16 cm2, which can be determined by a metal template with 9 cm2 or 16 cm2 holes. It is best to sterilize the template with flame before sampling, and then place the template on the area to be sampled. Wipe 5 times with a wet swab on each side of the square to be tested, a total of 20 times.