On the Narrative Strategy of Ning Ke’s Novels

Two years ago, I was fortunate to participate in the “Aba Literature Trends and Aba Writers Book Series (First Series) Press Conference”. At the meeting, my colleagues said, “Aba Writers Book Series” has the first series, so there should be the second series, the first The third series is nothing more than hope to promote the development of Aba literature in this way. Today, two years later, the “Aba Writer Book Series (Second Series)” was published as scheduled, and the wishes of colleagues.

At the “Aba Literature Trends and Aba Writers Book Series (Part 1) Press Conference”, I had a brief exchange with Ningke Dorje. The first impression he gave was that he was tall, big, and smiling. Very kind. Ning Ke Duojie began his literary creation in the early 1990s. He has published novels, poems, and essays in “Sichuan Literature”, “Tibet Literature”, “Young Writers”, and “Grassland”. He is a very talented writer. . Recently, “Ningke Dorje’s Novel Collection” was grandly launched by “Aba Writer Book Series (Second Series)”. The collection is composed of one long story, one middle story and four short stories. Since Ningke Dorje attaches great importance to the narrative strategy of the novel, the stories he tells are always vivid, concrete and moving.

The novel “Watch under the Cypress Tree” uses young Sobo as a narrative clue, which consciously avoids the cruel and complex elements of the adult world, frequent political movements, and the open conflicts between adults fade into the background of the novel, indicating that the writer has found A narrative strategy that is different from scar novels and reflective novels. Of course, this is not to say that this novel has no “scars” and no “reflections”. The unfortunate experience of the young Sobo has been full of the pains of the world, which is itself attractive. Thinking deeply and reading the text carefully, it is not difficult to find out that it is the various political movements and political struggles that downplayed the background of the novel.

The writer put the novel under the backdrop of a decade of turmoil and wrote it. The activity space of the young Sopo is mainly in a Tibetan village called “Shengezong (lion)”. Sobo ’s mother was the daughter of the former Dazhaizi head of “Shenge Zongzong”, and her father was a Chinese. The two met from the acquaintance, the acquaintance to the love, and finally turned against each other. In such a realistic context, the evil in human nature and even the animal nature were completely inspired. For his promotion, Sobo ’s father had to draw a line with his wife and divorced. Even Sobo was rescued From the beginning, he just watched from afar. There was only indifference and no affection in him. Sobo ’s mother was very stubborn. This tug-of-war between the two eventually led to the death of her sister Suo Hua. With his mother’s repeated delegation, Sopo had to return to her grandmother. After Sobo returned to the “Shengezong” Tibetan village, the struggle between adults gradually faded into the background of the characters’ activities. Sobo no longer had a more direct relationship with the “Shengezong” Tibetan village adults. What he had was In the world of teenagers, teenagers such as Sanlang Pengcuo, Suolang Wangqing, Yang Fugui and Dalji have become his friends. The small world where Sopo was active was ignorant, chaotic, and impoverished, but it was full of innocence, kindness, and simplicity. The true love between people at that time was what Mr. Alai called “warm poetry.” Because of this, in the view of the writers, this group of young people and even the “Shen Ge Zong” Tibetan villages should have a better destiny.

Another important narrative strategy in the novel “Watch under the Cypress Trees” is the suspense setting. In the narrative process, the writer enhances the storytelling and appeal of the novel by setting suspense and layers. At the beginning, the novel vividly depicts Sobo ’s drunken state. He feels that he is “like a lamb grilled on a fire pit, and his whole skin is burnt”, “He jumped out of his mouth quickly, his eyes dizzy. , I am weak all over the body “,” In the deep darkness, up and down and up and down, as if I entered the ‘black hole world’ “,” The endless space is silent and silent, like a huge sucker sucking Sobo tightly in it, “Swirling up and down”, “The little hands are arrogantly dancing in the air, and his two legs are kicking and kicking violently, but he seems to be sticking to the sponge, soft and soft, so that he can’t make it hard.” It can be said that the reader grabbed the reader from the beginning, and the reader couldn’t help but ask, why must such a small child get drunk, there must be some reason in between, the writer sets suspense here, and lays the groundwork for the interpretation of the following story. Sections 5 and 6 responded to this, and described Sopo’s drunken ins and outs very thoroughly. The whole story is this: Sobo ’s mother sent him 30 yuan. His grandmother asked him to go to the Commune Supply and Marketing Cooperative to buy wine. So he called Sanlang Pengcuo to go with him. On the way back, two children came out Yu curiosity, drinking a bottle of wine, drunk unconsciously, this is a story that makes people endure. The setting of suspense makes the narrative of the novel swaying and fluctuating, avoiding the fatigue of the reader caused by the single narrative clue.

Similarly, in the first section of the novel, the illusion produced by Sopo after drunkenness continued to lie in it. In the illusion, Sopo seemed to grasp his father ’s legs in the dark, and then exerted all his strength to his father ’s arms. The father turned around and left. He was like an abandoned puppy … In a trance, he saw his father’s hands holding a small thing and threw it on the ground. When we read the fourth section of the novel, it is not difficult to find that this is Sobo’s potential memory, but it is only activated by alcohol here. In this section, the novel has a detailed description of Sobo’s abandonment and Suo Hua’s death, which is a response to the previous foreshadowing.

And this narrative clue has not been interrupted. The writer followed this clue. After writing about drunkenness, Sopo had his own friends in the Tibetan village of “Shengezong”-Sanlang Pengcuo and Suolang Wangqing. life. From San Lang Pengcuo’s parents to the Sobo family Xingshi asking for guilt, and then to the final settlement of the matter (drinking vinegar or drinking sauerkraut hydrolysis wine), reached a communication and understanding between the two sides, Sobo finally had a relationship with the outside world. Sobo and Yang Fugui have similar family backgrounds of landlords, and suffer from the same loneliness, so they soon become good friends. Yang Fugui let Sopo ride a cow, sheep, pig, rooster, and even put a “flail” on the rooster. Let it plough the courtyard of the vegetable garden like a cow. These seemingly interesting stories are full of sourness behind it. Although Yang Fugui is a disabled person, he can tell stories and is naturally smart and kind. He went to Maerling to cut wood for his father. His behavior shocked the entire village and was interpreted as various versions of myth. “Someone said that he burned incense in the monk ditch of the halfway and asked the fairy to help him cut the logs. He pulled him to the river; there is even more mystery, saying that he is a fairy, that Li Tieguai was born into the Yang family. The writer’s portrayal of Yang Fugui is a bit more boastful, and it also paves the way for the magical rescue of Dalji at the end of the novel. Dalji is famous for being a “stick” (a person who is not afraid of the sky and anyone can’t afford it). He gave Sopo corn buns and asked Sopo to help him feed squirrels, teach Sopo to swim, and even so The enlightened enlightener of Bo Youth, when he learned that Sobo was going to school with his mother, he stole apples from the orchard of the production team and gave it to Sobo as a gift. Catch. Yang Fugui and Dalji are in conflict, but they are both friends of Sopo. When Yang Fugui learned that Dalji had been beaten for stealing an apple from Sopo, he believed that Dalji was loyal and had enough friends to send him a scimitar to defend himself. On the way of militia escorting Dalji, Yang Fugui overthrew several militias and fled with Dalji.

It can be said that the entire novel is set up with suspense and suspense, and then unfolded in an orderly manner, explaining the ins and outs of the incident, making the story of the novel stronger and more contagious. At the end of the novel, Sobo went to Yang Fugui to inquire about Dalji, and met Dalji’s sister Dolma Yongzong halfway through, and learned from her that Dalji had been rescued by Yang Fugui. It is not accidental that Dolma Yongzong and Sopo met here. The novel has been foreshadowed in the front. Sopo went to Dalji’s house and accidentally saw Dolma Yongzong taking a bath. Dolma Yongzong thought Sobo was a very cute little boy and did not blame him. Sopo thinks that Dolma Yongzong is the most beautiful girl in the world. When he thinks of her, Sopo has that kind of youthful youth. Obviously, the writer pursues the ups and downs of narrative and the harmony of narrative skills. Because of this, the end of the novel is both the end of the story and the beginning of the story. The gap left by this story needs to be filled by the reader. The reader can’t help but ask Sobo to go to his mother’s school? What is the situation of Sopo’s mother? If Sopo left “Shen Ge Zong”, how did his grandmother live? Where did Darji and Yang Fugui flee? The ending of the novel has a kind of aftertaste that surrounds the beam and has an artistic effect for three days.

two

As far as the narrative strategy of the novel is concerned, if the novel “The Watch under the Cypress” takes Sobo as the narrative clue and dilutes the specific era into the background of the novel to present a young world, then the novella “Lost Sun” Then set up two clues to describe. “The Lost Sun” describes a love story of an executive deputy magistrate, with love as the bright line, and the rise and fall of the officialdom as the dark line. The two clues of light and dark promote the development of the plot of the novel. Compared with official novels, the real interest of writers lies in exploring the subtle, secret emotional world of people.

The suspense was set at the beginning of the novel, “Mo Tanchen, the deputy county magistrate has an accident”, put it in the present context. The official’s accidents are mostly related to the battle between the officialdom or the integrity of the official. Readers cannot help asking What happened to “Mo Tanchen”? How did it happen?

The novel takes Mo Tanchen as a narrative perspective and unfolds in the form of memory. From a birthday party two years ago, Mo Tanchen and A Jia met unexpectedly, to Mo Tanchen to K County as deputy county magistrate on the “Zha Chong Festival” to train horses and A Jia’s heartbeat, from The drunkenness at the “National Day” party and the night of “Lost” in Chengdu. “Lost” is the loss of the direction of life, and “Lost” is the temptation to escape. But this is a kind of “love” that walks on the edge of morality and is doomed to have no good results. Mo Tanchen has a wife Xiaoyue who loves him very much, a lovely daughter, and an elderly mother, and Ajia is also married. This relationship between the two was eventually discovered by Xiaoyue who was on holiday in K County. Mo Tanchen wanted to go back but it was too late, while Ajia was going to marry Mo Tanchen like a moth. This matter continued to ferment in K County, and it was full of storms. Eventually Mo Tanchen and Ajia left K County and ended.

“The Lost Sun” is written with love as the main line. Although this is love walking on the edge of morality, the writer’s cleverness is that he is always hidden behind the story, without subjective intervention, only a fairly calm and objective narrative, The activities of the characters are completed by the promotion of the story line. The writers do more aesthetic judgments, while the moral judgments are the readers’ own affairs. In other words, this expression of the novel helps the writer to penetrate the narrative strokes into the character’s inner world and to appreciate the richness, complexity and profoundness of the character’s emotions.

Since Mo Tanchen and Ajia are local officials, they must have a relationship with the officialdom. Although the writer ’s interest is not in the officialdom, if the characters in the novel are completely stripped from the officialdom, then this is contrary to the reality of life. It cannot be further raised to artistic reality, so the novel takes the ups and downs of the officialdom as dark lines. The interweaving of bright lines and dark lines constitutes a network of character activities. Mo Tanchen went to K County to serve as the deputy head of the county. He learned that it was a problem for K county education that Doll did n’t want to go to school, and at the same time, he had to face the acceptance of “Pujiu”. The appearance of Deputy Director of the Health Bureau, A Jia, was not accidental, but was related to Mo Tanchen’s work. Later, the two went to the township to investigate and continue to increase mutual understanding in their work, and their feelings also heated up, and finally came together. This is just a working relationship, not an officialdom. Mo Tanchen’s official identity made him bound to have relations with the officialdom. Because of his youth and aggressiveness, Mo Tanchen was quickly recognized by K county cadres and the masses. Mo Tanchen changed the way of “grabbing” in the past when he took over the “Pujiu” education in pastoral areas. Instead, he used the methods of “please” and “lead”, and the principal led the team from house to house to “please”. The village cadres are “reasonable” by reason and action, and at the same time increase the food allowance for students. These methods have effectively promoted the work of “Pu Jiu” in K County. From the perspective of Executive Deputy County Chief Ze Dan, Mo Tanchen, a younger teenager who is younger than himself, came here to exercise completely for him, and the next election may take over Dongzhou County’s class. The key work of K County is the construction of “human, grass, and livestock”, that is, in two to three years, “people have settlements, grass has net fences, and animals have winter sheds.” In order to further promote this work, Mo Tanchen suggested that several working groups be organized for cross-checking. He also serves as the leader of an inspection team. The township he inspected is closest to the county and has the most convenient transportation. The worst was done, which happened to be the construction team arranged by Executive Deputy County Chief Ze Dan, so he directly pointed out at the “Three Supports” inspection report that “cadres who mix personal interests into it distort this good thing. “And recommended that the Commission for Discipline Inspection investigate the problematic areas in the” three supporting “construction projects. The investigation and processing result was that several directors close to Zedan were dealt with. The contradiction between Mo Tanchen and Ze Dan.

The relationship between Mo Tanchen and Ajia just became the sharpest weapon for opponents on the official court to attack him. Nima is a good player in the officialdom. After graduating from normal school, he was assigned to the county Youth League Committee and went to the countryside for a few years as a deputy secretary. He soon became the county party committee member and disciplinary committee secretary. Zedan is very good. He had long noticed the relationship between Mo Tanchen and Ajia. After a county committee standing committee ended, he asked mysteriously, “Why didn’t Mo Tanchen come to the meeting?” Dong Zhou said that there was something wrong with Mo Tanchen’s family, and Nima made An unpredictable expression said to Dong Zhou: “The backyard is on fire!” Afterwards, Mo Tanchen’s affairs and questions were brought out. Dong Zhou reflected on Secretary Zhang’s life style. In fact, Mo Tanchen was spotted by Nima as soon as he arrived in County K. Nima secretly collected Mo Tanchen’s economic problems as Zedan ordered, but found nothing. Nima vaguely heard that the relationship between Mo Tanchen and A Jia was abnormal, so he turned his focus on Mo Tanchen from economic issues to the relationship between men and women. Nima once pursued Ajia, and had a night of joy. Based on his knowledge of Ajia, he believed that Mo Tanchen and Ajia must have a problem, so he followed Ajia for confirmation. Nima and Xie Jing are classmates in normal school. They broke up with Xie Jing because of Nima’s empathy. Xie Jing was in charge of education and health, and stared at the Ajia of the Health Bureau so that Nima could not start. When the relationship between Nima and Ajia had cooled down, she pursued Nima frantically. Keep that kind of secret relationship. Xie Jing transferred to A County as the Minister of Propaganda, and still keeps the sister relationship with A Jia, who naturally knows the relationship between A Jia and Mo Tanchen. As everyone knows, this is a conspiracy jointly conducted by Nima and Xie Jing, followed by Ze Dan’s conspiracy and planning, the purpose is to destroy Mo Tanchen. Xie Jing has been instigating Ajia to expose her relationship with Mo Tanchen in front of Xiaoyue, causing Mo Tanchen’s family crisis, and inspiring Ajia to make a request for marriage to Mo Tanchen. The farce they planned finally succeeded. First, Ajia’s suicide by cutting his wrist, then Ajia’s husband drew his sword, and finally the organization came forward to deal with the matter. Investigator. In short, the dark line of officialdom has always promoted the development of the storyline. Although the writer’s attention is in love, this dark line is also indispensable.

three

“Ningke Dorje’s Fiction Collection” pinned the writer to the profound humanistic care, especially the sympathy, tolerance and understanding of the unfortunate encounters of the characters in the pen. This sentiment throughout the novel influences the narrative strategy of the novel, including the setting of the narrative clues of the novel, the advancement of the plot, and even the layout of the whole work.

The novel “Watch under the Cypress Tree” reveals the fate of various characters struggling in the vortex of political struggle in China at that time. None of the characters in the writer’s pen can arouse people’s sympathy. This feeling of the writer directly affects the setting of the narrative clues of the novel, the setting of suspense and the promotion of the plot. Sobo ’s parents are worthy of sympathy, accompanied by the storyline, the two from the acquaintance, the acquaintance, to the love, became a happy family of people envy, but the good times are not long, the differences in ingredients, the tragic political struggle, The gloom and cruelty of human nature eventually caused the relationship between the two to fall apart, resemble strangers, and even become enemies. Sobo ’s father got the so-called promotion. In order to achieve his goal, he ignored his wife and children, but he did n’t have any trace of affection except for the suffocating indifference. Here, the writer saw more of a distortion of human nature With the transformation, Sobo ’s father is still a tragic character and still deserves sympathy, because this is the dark and cruel human nature inspired by a specific historical period. Therefore, this feeling of the writer determines the narrative strategy of the novel. The writer sympathizes with the encounter of the young Sobo, and Sobo becomes the narrative clue of the novel, and the plot of the novel gradually advances with this clue. Parents divorced, father’s indifference, mother’s decentralization, he had to return to the “Shen Gezong” Tibetan village, and his grandmother depended on each other’s lives, this is the only warmth of the young family. Sobo’s grandmother did the same. She was just the wife of the Dazhaizi headman of the “Shengezong” before the founding of New China. Because of the word “component”, she and her daughter and grandson were doomed. It can be said that sympathy, as the writer’s humanistic care for the characters in the pen, runs through the novel, or that it interprets the stories like a red line, even the characters like “Zhang Dabao” and “Yan Lao Er” are also worthy of sympathy. “Zhang Da Cannon” was just a piece of political struggle at the time. He just performed a few more funny performances in that era. In the Tibetan village of “Shengezong”, “Yan Lao Er” seemed to be an overbearing and incomparable militia company commander, but his aggressiveness and ruthlessness did not bring him good results. Finally, he was under Daerji’s knife Become a disabled person. At the same time, the novel has always revealed a warm glow in the dark tones, that is, the kinship and friendship of the human beings that the writer has always watched, and the noble spiritual qualities of human innocence, kindness, integrity, and courage that have always watched. This watch can be said to be aroused by the writer’s humanistic feelings and writer’s sympathy. Therefore, from the perspective of narrative strategy, the novel consciously describes the strength and optimism of Sobo’s grandmother, because this is Sobo’s only family Warmth, the writer will not let him go out easily. In that particular era, friendship was with people His heart is even more precious, and the isolated and helpless Sobo finds solace from it, so many plots of this novel are centered on friendship, such as Sopo, Sanlang Pengcuo, Suolang Wangqing, Yang Fugui, Dalji People open up a vast activity space. In view of this, the humanistic feelings throughout the novel influence the direction of the writer’s narrative strategy and affect the layout of the whole novel.

If the novel “Watching under the Cypress Tree” is for the writer’s sympathy for the unfortunate encounter of the characters in the novel, the novella “The Lost Sun” is for the writer to want more tolerance and understanding between people. It can be said that the writer’s tolerance and understanding run through the novel, and the narrative strategy of the novel is controlled, including the setting of the narrative clues, the effective advancement of the story plot and so on. Because Ningke Dorje, who has been working in Aba for a long time, has enough rich life experience at the grass-roots level, he is always so handy when writing about this kind of life. The characters in his pen are Mo Tanchen, Ajia, Nima, Eastern Zhou, Zedan, etc. are always so vivid. Mo Tanchen is a flexible and aggressive young cadre who is the object of higher-level organization training. Therefore, the writer arranged the plot for the acceptance of the “Pu Jiu” education in pastoral areas. Mo Tanchen used “please”, “lead”, “Guiding” instead of “grabbing” has achieved good results. Arrangements have also been made to promote the “human, grass, and animal” work. However, it was just such a young and promising cadre who, due to his separation from his wife, had a gap in his emotional life, and at this time, Ajia, whose marriage was repeatedly frustrated, appeared in front of him. Therefore, the writer arranged two people from The plots of encounter, acquaintance, and love, make the two’s emotions come true in these plots, but this is a love that walks on the edge of morality. The writer adopted this narrative strategy, the purpose of which was to give tolerance and understanding to such young and promising cadres as Mo Tanchen. In order to achieve this goal, the writer even arranged for Mo Tanchen to go to the countryside to inspect the “people, grass and animals”. The episode of encountering a car accident during the matching process is nothing more than the difficulty of working in the pastoral area, and you must be more tolerant and understand the cadres in the pastoral area. Because the novel emphasizes that the love between Mo Tanchen and A Jia is out of true feelings, the writing of love naturally becomes the main clue of the novel. The writer tells this love story that walks on the edge of morality, which is itself tolerance and understanding of the characters in the pen. This makes “Lost Sun” not fall into the “old routine” of officialdom novels. In officialdom novels, the relationship between the sexes is often written by the boss’s unspoken rules for the subordinates or the subordinates’ active devotion to achieve a certain purpose. The writer always hides behind the text of the novel, writes in an objective and calm style, never morally judges Mo Tanchen and A Jia, and gives enough tolerance and understanding to this unproductive love. At the end of the novel, Mo Tanchen and A Jia arranged a good place for them. Mo Tan Chen went to the regional party history office as an assistant researcher, while A Jia went to the four-star hotel as a manager. In the same way, the writer completely shattered Mo Tanchen behind Xie Jing, Nima, Zedan and others for different purposes, and also played down the dark lines of the novel.

The other four short stories in Ningke Dorje’s Novel Collection all contain this kind of tolerance and understanding. This tolerance and understanding influence the narrative strategy of the novel, from the narrative clues and suspense settings of the novel, to the arrangement and promotion of the plot, all are not affected by the writer’s feelings. “Unspeakable Love” describes a cowardly and conservative person who, after being drunk at a classmate’s party, reveals the true feelings, then wanders and entangles between the true feelings and family ethics, and finally returns to normal emotions track. “Never lost, never owned”, this is the unspeakable love written in the novel, in tolerance and understanding, leaving a certain space for this true feeling on earth. “Falling Pear Flowers” also describes love walking on the edge of morality. Tsering Dorje’s admiration and pursuit for pear flowers, to the heart-to-heart between them, to each other due to misunderstandings, and finally the pear flowers drive and drink The trucks collided and “fallen”. Before dying, they called a strange name. The novel’s true feelings were written in the timeless strokes of the pear flower, so that Tsering Dorje dispelled her misunderstanding, so as to achieve tolerance and understanding between them. The emotional entanglement between “you” and “Yu” in “Falling Love”, in which the relationship between “you” and “Yu” ranges from intimate to estranged, to complete interruption, after “you” knows the true reason , “You” lost that unforgettable love, “You” longed for the understanding and respect of others. Jia Yang in “Blessings of God” survived a car accident. People think he was blessed by gods, which is not the case. Instead, his Han father died after the car accident, which included people. Need to understand and communicate. The sympathy, tolerance and understanding in Ningke Dorje’s novels make his character’s emotional world deeper and richer.

Literary creation is a process of continuous self-denial and self-transcendence. For writers, it is necessary to try different themes and different ways of writing. Only in this way can self-denial and self-transcendence be achieved. To a certain extent, Ningke Dorje is also seeking a breakthrough in creation, especially the novella “The Lost Sun” conveys an important message that the writer wants to seek a breakthrough in the subject and begins to pay attention to his familiar Subject matter, and its narrative strategy is relatively mature. Aba is a treasure of literature. The diversity and uniqueness of culture are worth expressing in literature. In terms of the writer’s artistic practice, life experience and life experience, Ningke Dorje should focus his attention on the subject matter he is familiar with, and put the story of the Aba people in the context of the change and development of the 40 years of reform and opening up. Writing, so that we can create large works and good works with a more contemporary spirit, this is our common expectation.