New technologies on the anti-epidemic front

Since 2020, the new coronary pneumonia epidemic has been affecting the hearts of millions of people. In the global battle against the new coronavirus, some new technologies were developed and applied.

Detection method
The spread of the new coronavirus is diverse. In addition to spreading through the respiratory tract droplets and contact, the virus can also be spread through different methods such as aerosol, digestive tract, mother and child, with multiple transmission channels and strong infectivity. Therefore, it is more difficult to control the spread of new coronavirus than coronavirus such as SARS, which is one of the important reasons for the high infection rate in the world. Early detection, early isolation, early diagnosis, and early treatment are the top priorities in the prevention and control of this outbreak. So, what are the detection methods?

The new coronary pneumonia detection reagents currently approved for marketing mainly include two types: one is nucleic acid detection reagents, and the other is antibody detection reagents. Up to now, China’s State Food and Drug Administration has approved 12 nucleic acid detection reagents and 8 antibody detection reagents. With the progress of disease recognition and research and development, more testing reagents and methods will be put into use in the future.

The nucleic acid detection process includes specimen processing, nucleic acid extraction, and PCR detection. The average detection time takes 2 to 3 hours. Because it directly detects the viral nucleic acid in our collected samples, it has strong specificity and relatively high sensitivity, and is currently the main detection method. The disadvantage of this detection method is that nucleic acid detection requires laboratories, instruments, reagents, consumables, and professional and technical personnel. It takes a long time, and it takes nearly half a day to complete a batch of tests. The reason why it takes about half a day is actually due to the time spent in the closed inspection process. A large number of samples need to be shipped to the CDC and third-party testing agencies, so that a lot of time is spent on the road. Is there any possibility of saving time in all aspects of nucleic acid testing? The answer is possible. For example, in the sample collection, additional testing personnel can be sent to speed up the process of pharyngeal swab sampling. Another example is that in the virus inactivation process, some testing institutions currently use the heating method, which can be replaced with virus lysate, which can shorten the detection time by nearly half an hour.

The advantage of the nucleic acid detection method is that the opportunity is early, and the enemy is expected: the nucleic acid can be detected early in the patient’s infection with the new coronavirus. Theoretically, the nucleic acid can be detected within 1 to 2 days of the patient’s infection and can be discovered and isolated earlier. And treatment.

Antibody detection methods include colloidal gold method and magnetic particle chemiluminescence method, wherein the average detection time of colloidal gold method is about 15 minutes, and magnetic particle chemiluminescence method generally takes 30 to 60 minutes. Antibody testing is to detect the level of antibodies in human blood. The Zhong Nanshan team has developed an IgM-IgG (immunoglobulin M and G, also known as antibody) combined antibody detection reagent, which can be tested by blood dripping in 15 minutes and the result is produced in 15 minutes. It can be used as a supplementary test for people who are negative for viral nucleic acid testing to improve the clinical diagnosis rate, and can also be used as a rapid screening method to play the advantages of screening during the period of large-scale staff turnover and gathering such as the resumption of labor and resumption of school in the country. The detection time is greatly shortened, so that more people can be detected. The United States has made great progress in antibody detection methods. In just 12 days, the 6th generation antibody detection method has been updated. The detection time ranges from the earliest two hours to the last 5 minutes, and the detection accuracy rate reaches 95%. For example, Abbott Pharmaceuticals Inc. of the United States announced a new coronavirus detection method that can determine whether someone is infected in just 5 minutes. The detection kit is small in size, easy to carry, and can be used in almost any medical environment. The United States has also adopted a serum detection kit, which can detect whether there is a new coronavirus antibody in the tested person within two minutes, which greatly shortens the detection time. The United States approved the use of saliva for the detection of new coronavirus for the first time. According to the results of comparative tests that have been carried out, the accuracy rate reaches 100%, which not only expands the test range, but also reduces the probability of infection by medical personnel. South Korea adopts a method in which multiple samples are mixed and tested. When the result is positive, the samples are tested separately. Using this method can greatly improve the detection efficiency and alleviate the shortage of detection reagents to a certain extent. This test is mainly for virus screening of asymptomatic people in order to quickly find potential infected people in the community, and this method will not be used for definitive diagnosis.

The antibody detection method is simple and the detection time is short. Why not use it instead of nucleic acid detection methods? The main reason is that the false negative rate is high. In the early stage of the disease, the body has not produced antibodies, which cannot be detected by this method. And now there are a large number of asymptomatic carriers of new coronavirus, and their antibodies are usually negative, which cannot be detected by this method. Therefore, antibody detection can be used to assist in the diagnosis of cases where the nucleic acid test is negative, and can also be used for screening and screening of cases, but it cannot replace nucleic acid detection methods. At present, the most commonly used detection method is to detect patients’ nasopharyngeal swabs and lower respiratory tract secretions. It is now found that the saliva detection method is better, and the detection personnel can not touch the subject when sampling, and the accuracy rate is higher than that of the nasopharyngeal swab test method.

The anti-epidemic detection also used an automated whole-genome detection and analysis platform, which can perform whole-genome sequence comparison on virus samples of suspected cases according to AI (artificial intelligence) algorithms, rather than just detecting the parts of the virus genes to prevent viruses Missing detections due to mutations, and with the help of AI, the detection time of virus samples for suspected cases has been reduced from a few hours to half an hour, greatly improving the efficiency of diagnosis and alleviating the shortage of medical resources.

Body temperature detection and remote observation and guidance system
One of the typical symptoms of new coronary pneumonia is high temperature and fever, so body temperature detection is the “first line of defense” against the epidemic. During the extraordinary period of epidemic prevention and control, ear thermometers, forehead thermometers and other temperature measuring “weapon” have come into battle one after another to show their abilities. Among them, infrared thermal imaging thermometers that “just look at you in the crowd and the temperature is recorded” are particularly popular.

In response to the epidemic situation, some companies have actively used their own advantages and launched fully automatic non-contact temperature measurement products, in order to respond to different scenarios of epidemic prevention and control of new measures. Infrared thermal imaging thermometers using infrared principles, face recognition, AI and other technologies can complete body temperature screening in milliseconds, the detection distance can reach 10 meters, and automatically record temperature abnormal information, send out alarms in time, and even automatically capture Take feverish people. It can be said that the infrared thermography thermometer has played an important role in the identification of suspected patients in public places, and is an important equipment to win the battle of epidemic prevention and control. 5G infrared thermal imaging temperature measurement system is one of them. This system consists of infrared temperature detection camera, somatosensory black body, 5G-CPE and computer host. Compared with the traditional manual temperature gun detection, the 5G infrared thermal imaging temperature measurement system adopts a non-contact design, that is, the entry and exit personnel only need to walk in front of the lens and the sensor, the device can quickly obtain the current personnel temperature data and conduct screening In order to avoid manual testing step by step, improve traffic efficiency and reduce cross-infection caused by personnel detention. Through thermal imaging technology and environmental data algorithm, the temperature measurement accuracy of the instrument can reach ±0.1℃. With the help of the 5G network, the temperature data detected by the instrument will be transmitted to the epidemic prevention control center in time. When a human body temperature exceeds the alarm temperature threshold, if the fever is suspected, the device will alarm to remind personnel to carry out further inspection. The entire detection process takes only 0.5 seconds, which is nearly 10 times faster than manual temperature measurement. At present, 5G infrared thermal imaging temperature measurement system has been used in shopping malls, hospitals and transportation hubs in some areas.

The intensive care unit of the hospital is the front line against the disease, and it is also the most dangerous place for virus infection between doctors and patients. In the critical isolation area of ​​some hospitals, you can see a lot of newly installed monitoring equipment, but these are not ordinary security surveillance cameras, but the “VR remote observation and guidance system” installed by China Mobile. Through these lenses distributed throughout the critically ill area, medical staff can observe the patients in the critically ill area at any time through high-definition pictures and VR technology, so as to avoid contact between the medical staff and the critically ill patients, reducing the possibility that medical staff may contact the patients And there is an infection. At the same time, experts outside the hospital can also observe patients in critically ill areas through this system. Even in remote locations, the expert team can give timely diagnosis and treatment plans to help the hospital in rescue work. For the family members of patients, the situation of loved ones in the critical isolation area can be observed through this system. Due to the need for real-time high-definition VR image transmission, this system is also built based on the 5G network.

Mask
A new coronary pneumonia epidemic made masks one of the most important protective items on the market at the time. In addition to increasing production capacity to ensure the supply of masks, how to make effective protective masks extend the service life is also an option to solve the shortage of masks during the epidemic.

Copper mask

Copper ions can penetrate into the outer membrane of pathogenic microorganisms, causing the loss of important nutrients in the pathogenic microorganisms and interrupting the cell metabolism, which eventually leads to the death of the pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, it is widely used in the process of disinfection and sterilization. A company in Chile used this characteristic of copper to produce a copper mask. The copper mask is made by 3D printer. It is seamless and waterproof, with 3 copper-edged filters inside. At present, the company has published the design drawings of the mask, and anyone with a 3D printer can use the design scheme of this mask for free.

Reusable nano mask

The research team of Li Bo and Wu Hui of Tsinghua University has developed a reusable nano mask. The research originated from the cooperative development of nanofiber materials by the two teams in recent years. The nanofiber membrane they developed has good filtration performance (air-spun nanofibers have ultra-fine diameter and high fiber density), which can meet the technical requirements of disposable medical masks, medical surgical masks and medical protective masks.

At the same time, the material has the characteristics of reusable disinfection. Conventional medical protective masks generally use non-woven fabric materials. After cooking and disinfecting such materials, static electricity is eliminated and the protective effect is deteriorated, so that they cannot be reused. The nano-fiber membrane material developed by the Tsinghua University team can still maintain high filtration efficiency and low air resistance after repeated disinfection with steam, which can meet the public’s emergency reuse requirements in the case of shortage of masks.

Graphene anti-epidemic mask

The team of Professor Sun Litao of the School of Electronic Science and Engineering of Southeast University developed the “graphene-based mask”. According to reports, this mask sprays the graphene composite solution on the filter net, which can effectively remove (dry and wet) dust and PM2.5 in the air. The PM2.5 removal rate of this mask is as high as 99.3%. Because the virus in this epidemic mainly spreads in the air through droplets or droplets to form an aerosol, similar to the usual smog particles, the anti-virus function of graphene-based masks is very good.

Masks with higher filtration efficiency than N95

The team of Professor He Jianxin from the Textile and Apparel Industry Research Institute of Zhongyuan Institute of Technology has made breakthrough progress in the key technologies and equipment of nanofiber air filter materials and masks for efficient virus protection. Nano-fibers with a diameter of 50 to 150 nanometers are prepared by the self-developed linear electrode electrospinning technology. Ultrafine non-woven filter materials with a filtration accuracy of 100 nanometers can be processed using these ultra-fine fibers as raw materials, which can effectively intercept respiratory tract flight Molybdenum, PM2.5, viruses, oily particles and other pathogen transmission media. It is reported that the mask’s filtration efficiency for standard particles of 0.3 microns is more than 99.5%, which exceeds N95 masks. In addition, the technology also uses a virus killer to modify the spinning stock solution, and nanofibers are doped with Chinese herbal medicine plant extracts with antiviral effects, so that the virus is completely safe from physical interception and biological killing. Protection.

N95 mask disinfection machine

A US company recently developed a machine called the “intensive care decontamination system” that uses gas-phase hydrogen peroxide to disinfect N95 masks. The machine is made of metal containers and can clean 80,000 N95 masks every day, making them safe to reuse 20 times.

Epidemic prevention robot
At the beginning of 2020, with the spread of the new coronary pneumonia epidemic, intelligent robots have also become busy. They are constantly undergoing technological innovations, and they can be put into use one after another after they are put into use, helping all regions to carry out epidemic prevention and control work safely.

Artificial intelligence distribution robot

On the evening of January 24, 2020, flight TR188 arrived at Hangzhou Xiaoshan Airport from Singapore. A patient diagnosed with new coronary pneumonia was found on the plane. The 219 passengers in the same group were arranged for centralized isolation and observation at the Hangzhou Municipal Party School. The segregated passengers are distributed in more than 200 rooms on an 8-story building. How to deliver food safely and quickly becomes a problem.

Knowing this, Qinglang Intelligent provided 16 distribution robots to the isolation area free of charge within 24 hours, and completed the deployment of all floors within two days. The staff only needs to place the meals on the robot’s 3-layer tray and enter the target room number, and the robot will be automatically delivered. The workload of 3 delivery personnel within 1 hour, one delivery robot can be completed within 20 minutes.

Epidemic prevention and control robot

Many communities and police stations have an innovative exploration artificial intelligence voice system, which can use the form of human-machine dialogue to conduct intelligent epidemic prevention and inspection work, making information collection more efficient. With this system, as long as the telephone numbers of the investigators are entered into the system in batches, a fixed program is written, and the robot’s smart phone is connected to the contact number of the person under investigation, the situation of the quarantined person can be understood, and the residents of the jurisdiction are informed about the latest epidemic situation. Notice of prevention and control, especially the requirement of home isolation. It can make at least tens of thousands of calls a day, which greatly reduces the work pressure of investigators.

Robot “Police Officer”

“Pingping Police Officer” is a robot that can be used for passenger service and security. While autonomously patrolling, it can quickly and accurately measure the temperature of multiple passing passengers within 1.5 meters ahead, and display the real-time temperature status of each passenger on the screen in the middle of the robot. Once it detects passengers whose body temperature is higher than normal, it will immediately alert the police and medical personnel on duty. While performing body temperature detection, the robot can also simultaneously identify passengers who are not wearing masks, and provide real-time reminders through the voice broadcast function. Passengers can conduct temperature measurement without queuing and gathering, which effectively avoids personnel contact and cross infection. At the same time, “Pingping Police Officer” also used the voice + video mode to publicize the epidemic prevention instructions and key points of anti-epidemic fraud to passers-by, so as to further strengthen the public’s awareness of security prevention.

Intelligent patrol robot

A truck entered the customs inspection area, and at the entrance, a special customs “new member” began work. This “new member” is a wheeled intelligent patrol robot, which is equipped with an infrared thermometer and a 360-degree panoramic camera, which can realize functions such as body temperature detection, face recognition, and cargo movement monitoring. It performs infrared temperature measurement and face recognition on the approaching personnel. About 1 second, the screen at the entrance of the inspection area displays the personnel’s temperature and identity information, and confirms that there is no abnormal situation before it is released.

In the Huangtian district of Bao’an, Shenzhen, since the epidemic prevention and control work began, 6 5G patrol robots have been busy on important roads and crowded areas in the district every day to carry out epidemic outreach, thermographic temperature measurement and other work. At present, it is mainly used for the centralized temperature detection of bus passengers. If the person has abnormal temperature, the system can automatically alarm. After actual use, the working efficiency is more than 4 times higher than that of the manual handheld temperature measuring gun.

Disinfection and anti-epidemic robot

The disinfection and epidemic prevention robot can automatically, efficiently and accurately disinfect and prevent epidemic in the room according to the set route. The disinfection and anti-epidemic robot uses the robot as a carrier to generate disinfection gas in the disinfection system inside the robot, and uses the robot’s pneumatic system to quickly spread the disinfection gas in the indoor space, increasing the coverage and uniformity of disinfection, and effectively killing the air without dead ends. Pathogenic microorganisms.

5G Epidemic Prevention Robot

The 5G epidemic prevention robot is based on China Mobile’s 5G network and integrates intelligent perception, Internet of Things, AR, artificial intelligence and other technologies. It is deployed in public places and crowded places. In addition to the temperature detection of the visitors, recognition of wearing masks, voice alarm, epidemic prevention propaganda, people In addition to contactless interactive epidemic prevention functions such as face attendance, you can also be an instructor in the exhibition hall, a front desk consultant, a leading expert, etc. according to on-site needs, and become assistants to the masses through navigation, guides, explanations, business consultation questions and answers. In addition, the epidemic prevention robot can also transmit live video in real time through a 5G network and a high-definition camera, helping to realize dead-end-free monitoring. A series of automated and intelligent operations of the robot not only saves time, but also greatly reduces the labor intensity and virus transmission risk of epidemic prevention personnel. Among them, the 5G-X Pepper bedside care robot can carry out patient care, consultation and answering, epidemic prevention publicity, video interaction through artificial intelligence technology, and can also assist patients to communicate with doctors remotely, video check the patient’s situation and return, greatly reducing the The workload of medical staff and the risk of cross infection.

Smart shelter hospital
The creation of the Fangcao Hospital is a key move in the fight against the new coronary pneumonia epidemic, and it has played an irreplaceable and important role in both prevention and treatment. In this “war epidemic”, square cabin hospitals have higher requirements for intelligence than ordinary hospitals. Various information systems need to be planned and built in one go, including 5G intelligent robots, remote diagnosis, big data and other technologies and equipment stand by. The construction of the intelligent shelter hospital can not only reduce the burden of medical personnel, reduce the probability of infection, but also bring timely services and intimate care for patients. In the prevention and control of epidemics, the treatment of patients, the deployment of resources, the trace of the root causes of viruses, monitoring and analysis It played a good role in the epidemic.

Use informatization in intelligent shelter hospitals, adopt paperless procedures such as mobile rounds, treatments, inspections, inspections, and consultations to ensure the completeness and monitoring of medical data; improve electronic medical record information adapted to the characteristics of shelter hospitals; introduce intelligence The robot is used for the timely delivery of medical materials and living materials from outside the cabin to the cabin; equipped with a bracelet for patients to automatically and continuously monitor blood oxygen saturation and heart rate. For example, when a patient enters a square cabin hospital, a 5G network thermometer screens everyone’s body temperature and notifies patients with high fever; each patient wears a smart bracelet, and the hospital monitors body temperature, heartbeat, blood oxygen, etc. from the AI ​​platform at any time Vital signs; medical staff should also wear smart bracelets to check for signs of infection.

There are many robots that perform different functions in the shelter hospital. The 5G medical service robots who can dance and perform health exercises are loved by patients and dance with them. Dancing is just one of the talents of 5G medical service robots. Its most important responsibilities are to guide and sub-diagnose, monitor the ward, interact with medical staff and patients, and cooperate with doctors to conduct remote video-assisted diagnosis of patients in isolation wards and cabins. . The 5G cleaning and disinfection robot is specially equipped with a disinfection water tank, which can automatically complete the disinfection and cleaning tasks, autonomous obstacle avoidance, and self-check the cleaning effect according to the prescribed route, and automatically report the task status and feedback the task details. In the whole process, unmanned operation is realized, and disinfection and cleaning work are independently completed, saving labor costs and improving efficiency. Robots will also help deliver food, drinks and medicines. The robot does not need protective equipment, which can greatly save the scarce protective clothing, masks and other materials. Although robots cannot replace medical personnel, they will help medical personnel and make their work more efficient and safer.

The cloud AI command system of the intelligent square cabin hospital controls all the facilities of the hospital, and all patients have Internet of Things equipment, which can master their real-time heartbeat and temperature. With the support of the 5G network, the intelligent shelter hospital can even complete the work of remote consultation. This is a new template for upgrading traditional hospitals to smart hospitals.