Misunderstood history

The development of world science is not determined by an apple

Many people know that an apple hit Newton’s head, which made him think about and put forward universal gravitation, but is this really the case?

In the archives of the Royal Society of London, there is a manuscript that records the truth about the “Apple Incident”-“Sir Isaac Newton’s Biography”, which was written by Newton’s friend and archaeologist William Stukley. The manuscript writes that in 1726, after having dinner with the elderly Newton, Stukley talked about the past under the apple tree in the garden. “It happened to be the case when the idea of ​​gravitation appeared in his mind before. ——The apple fell while he was thinking hard.” It turned out that Apple did not fall on Newton’s head, nor was it the apple that caused him to think about universal gravitation. Newton had already started thinking about universal gravitation. Apple’s inability to drop it would not affect the birth of the law of universal gravitation and the development of world science.

How could Einstein’s maths be bad

It is said that when Einstein was young, he failed the math test, but if you doubt his mathematics ability because of this story, then you are very wrong.

Because of his love for mathematics, 12-year-old Einstein had taught himself algebra and geometry; at the age of 14, he had mastered calculus and integral knowledge. At the age of 16, Einstein had written the first physics paper in his life-“Research on the State of Ether in Magnetic Fields”.

What Einstein failed was not the math test, but the university entrance exam. In 1895, 16-year-old Einstein took the entrance examination of ETH Zurich for the first time. Although Einstein scored high in the science part, he failed the liberal arts part of the exam. In September 1896, 17-year-old Einstein took the university entrance exam for the second time and was successfully admitted and began his university life.

Who invented papermaking

In history, Cai Lun in the Eastern Han Dynasty was inseparable from papermaking. In the eyes of paper craftsmen, he was regarded as the “Paper God”. But is he really the inventor of papermaking?

In fact, papermaking may have existed in the early years of the Western Han Dynasty. The earliest ancient paper found by archaeology is Fangmatan paper from 179 BC to 141 BC. In the 20th century, archaeologists had already discovered various ancient Western Han papers, such as Baqiao paper, Jinguang paper, and Maquanwan paper, in many Western Han ruins.

Although Cai Lun is only an improver of papermaking, he is still a hero of papermaking. The “Caihou paper” invented by Cai Lun is cheaper and of better quality than the paper invented by the predecessors. The most important thing is that the raw materials are easy to find, which greatly promotes the popularization and use of paper.

So who invented the great papermaking technique? To this day, they have not been found.

Edison was just an improver of light bulbs

What we can be sure of is that Edison invented the tin foil phonograph and the first movie camera, but the light bulb was really not invented by him, he was just an improver.

The first real light bulb in the world was invented by British scientist Warren Delaru, but it was not commercially promoted due to the high manufacturing cost and poor effect. In 1860, the British chemist Joseph Swan used carbonized paper filament to solve the problem of high cost, but the bulb he made was not durable in daily life.

At this time, Edison replaced Swann’s carbonized paper filament with a thinner and more durable filament, and established the Edison Electric Lighting Company to commercialize light bulbs and popularize them in people’s daily lives.

In addition, Edison had many inventions in his life, with more than 1,000 patents in his hand, so he was called “the king of inventions”, but these inventions were not made by Edison alone. In 1876, Edison established the Menlo Park Laboratory. There are outstanding staff in various fields in this laboratory. Together with Edison, they have made Edison the “king of invention”.

Watt is just an improver of the steam engine

Although Watt contributed to the history of the steam engine, he was not the one who invented the steam engine. As early as the early 1st century AD, steam engines have appeared in ancient Greek documents. However, the steam engine at that time was called the steam ball, which was invented by the ancient Greek mathematician Hero.

After Hilo, it was not until the 16th century that scientists tried to use steam to design various power devices, but these devices always had some shortcomings or problems and could not be widely promoted. Watt’s improved steam engine not only solves the problems of the steam engine designed by the predecessors, but also greatly improves its efficiency, bringing mankind into the “steam age”.

Columbus did not discover the new world

Columbus was regarded as the first person to discover the New World for a long time. In fact, the European explorer Leif Eriksson was the first person to discover North America. He arrived in North America 500 years before Columbus and settled down. And Columbus never even set foot on the land of North America, just landed on various islands in the Caribbean Sea.

In addition, people often think that the voyage of Columbus proved to the world that the earth is round. However, in the time when Columbus lived, educated people knew that the earth was not flat, but round. As early as the 6th century BC, famous ancient Greek scholars such as Pythagoras had determined that the earth was a sphere. Ptolemy, a mathematician and astronomer in the heyday of Rome, mentioned in his book “Geography” that the statement that “the earth is round” is already a fact. In 1492, when Columbus set sail, he didn’t want to prove that the earth is round. He just tried to find a sea passage to the East Indies to the west.

Magellan is just the leader of global travel

Ferdinand Magellan is regarded as the first person to circumnavigate the world, but in fact, Magellan can only be regarded as the leader of the first circumnavigation. He did not complete this voyage because he died on the voyage around the world.

In 1519, Magellan led his partners across the Atlantic, South America, and most of the Pacific. In 1521, when they were about to complete the first voyage around the world in human history, Magellan was killed by the local Filipinos during the tribal war on Mactan Island because of Magellan’s involvement in the infighting between the small islands around the area.

Therefore, although Magellan’s fleet successfully returned to Spain in 1522 and completed the first round of the world voyage, Magellan himself did not cross the finish line. Among the first 260 crew members of the Magellan fleet, only 18 successfully returned to the voyage, and they were the ones who truly completed the first circumnavigation in history.