Many coups for animals to quench their thirst

  For many people, being thirsty and having no water to drink is very painful. When I was thirsty, my throat was smoking, and my whole body seemed to be on fire. It was very uncomfortable. Once there is a shortage of water, there is basically no other solution for human beings except to find a water source to replenish water as soon as possible.
  However, compared to humans who are so prone to “death of thirst”, some animals can be said to be very powerful. They can catch up with the extreme drought and the weather lasts for a long time, they can keep dripping for several years, and some do not need to drink at all. Water can still survive tenaciously. What are their coups?
  With its own “reservoir”
  in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, there is a huge desert gopher tortoise living in it. Compared with the aquatic tortoise that cannot be separated from the water, the habitat height of the gopher tortoise is about 3000-4000 Rice, they live in dry grasslands and desert rocky areas, where the average ground temperature in summer reaches 60°C.
  In order to avoid the scorching heat of summer and the scorching cold of winter, desert gopher tortoises generally dig more than 12 caves of different depths in the same area to meet the needs of different seasons. Afterwards, 95% of their lives are spent in caves . But hiding in caves is not foolproof, because sometimes the dry season in desert areas is too long, and there is no rain for several months. But for the desert gopher tortoise, this is not a terrible thing, because in this situation, they will use another survival magic weapon-the bladder “reservoir”.
  The water storage capacity of the desert gopher tortoise is the most powerful of all tortoises. When it rains, or when they can eat food that can replenish water such as cacti and grass, they will use the bladder to store water. When there is no water in the drought At that time, the water is lifted through the permeable bladder wall. With the strong water storage capacity of the bladder, the desert gopher tortoise can survive the dry season for up to a year.
  Water storage frogs are also masters of bladder water storage. Water storage frogs look like ordinary frogs, but they live in the desert regions of Australia, where animals also face the dilemma of lack of water to drink. Therefore, when it rains, the water-storing frog will suck up water vigorously, and its bladder and gills become its water reservoirs. The amount of water it stores is equivalent to 50% of its own weight, and once the “reservoir” is filled with water Enough, the water storage frog can survive without dripping water for 5 years.
  Since the water storage frog becomes a “big water ball” after storing water, many other desert animals use them as their own “reservoir” with ease, and the water storage frog becomes a larger frog, crocodile, Food and “water sources” for wild dogs and snakes.
  In the dry season, some Australian Tiwi natives also dig out water storage frogs from their holes and squeeze the water from their bladder into their mouths to quench their thirst.
  Reduce moisture loss
  since storage is not easy, then, to reduce the loss of body water is very important. The most common practice for desert animals is to avoid dry and hot daylight and hide in moist and cool burrows. There are also some animals that have evolved extremely sophisticated physiological functions to retain water. They can reduce water loss caused by excretion, sweating, and respiration. For example, desert reptiles and birds are excreted in the form of uric acid. Before this kind of urine is discharged, The water in it has been extracted by animals, so it is sticky. Some other animals simply made their own “waterproof clothing.”
  There is a giant monkey tree frog in the Amazon rainforest. Unlike the water storage frog, this frog not only does not hide from the sun and heat, but instead lives on high trees and is exposed to a very dry environment. Their strategy is to give Apply a waterproof waxy substance to yourself.
  In the dry season, giant monkey tree frogs secrete a sticky waxy substance, and they use their front legs to apply wax to their bodies meticulously. When the wax dries, the giant monkey tree frog looks like a dried “mummy”.
  There is a lungfish in Africa that further improved this method. This fish is so powerful that it can survive in the soil.
  As a kind of eel, lungfish generally live in rivers or ponds. When the dry season arrives and the river bed dries up, lungfish will use its pelvic fins to dig holes in the mud and then curl up in the holes. In order to prevent it from becoming “dried fish”, its skin will secrete special mucus to wrap the whole body to form a waterproof layer, leaving only a small hole for breathing. At this time, they use swim bladder to breathe air directly, and there is also a land animal-like ear. The sound transmitted through air vibration can be heard.
  In the dry cave, lungfish reduces the consumption of various organs of the body to the lowest point, without eating, drinking or excretion. This dormant state can last for 3 to 5 years. Until the rainy season, lungfish will wake up from dormancy. . However, many lungfish often cannot wait for the rainy season, because hungry locals dig them out of the soil to eat.
  Skin can also “absorb water”
  in the desert. When explorers do not find a water source, in order to survive, they will use cloth to absorb dew to get drinking water in the early morning. In fact, desert animals have already used this trick.
  In the arid region of the outback of Australia, there is a lizard covered with large curved spines from head to toe, the Australian spiny lizard. Because of its impure appearance, the locals jokingly call them “thorny demons”. These little demons are not evil. The spiny lizard is a completely harmless animal whose staple food is ants. What interests scientists is their drinking strategy.
  In the harsh natural environment of the desert, the spiny lizard has evolved a peculiar way of collecting water. In the skin between the spines of the spiny lizard, there are thousands of small grooves that directly lead to the lizard’s mouth. When night fell, the desert became very cold, and the water vapor in the air formed dew on the body of the spiny lizard, and the dew was eventually sent directly into the mouth of the spiny lizard along the groove. Not only that, the grooves are also like ink and paper. When the spiny lizard passes by plants or animals, it will take away the night dew attached to these animals. It is called a “water thief”.
  And some beetles also know this strategy. They, like soldiers, climb up to the top of the dunes every morning, using the temperature difference between their bodies and the air to condense the moisture in the air into dew on the surface of their shells for drinking.
  Mammals make their own water
  As a warm-blooded animal, mammals generally have to maintain their body temperature at about 38°C to maintain normal physiological functions. But in desert areas, the temperature during the day is usually higher than 38℃, and can exceed 50℃ in the hottest time. In such a hot environment, mammals mainly dissipate heat by letting water in the body evaporate (sweating or panting). This is a very effective cooling method. However, this method has a shortcoming. If you don’t add water in time, your body will become dehydrated very quickly. Therefore, if people stay in the desert for 12 hours without water, they will become severely dehydrated. However, some mammals in the desert can eat food without drinking water.
  Genglu rats are rodents that live in the arid zone of North America. They have a unique cheek pouch like a shopping bag on their cheeks, which are used to carry food. They have developed hind limbs but very short forelimbs. Like a kangaroo, it looks like a miniature version of a kangaroo. The Genglu rats living in the desert seal themselves in the crypt to isolate the noon heat, and at the same time use their own breathing cycle to moisturize the air in the cave. This unique rodent also has a specially structured kidney, and its unique fine glands can filter most of the water in the urine and transport it back to the blood vessels. The water they exhale when they breathe is recovered by a specially evolved organ in the nasal cavity.
  Perhaps, you would think that Gengel Rats, like other desert animals, should not be easy to find water. However, Gengel Rats do not need water at all. They will collect seeds when the weather is humid and plant seeds are abundant, and then only use these high-calorie seeds to produce energy for their livelihood.
  Since the nutrients in food, such as carbohydrates, can produce water during metabolism, Gingluo rats can meet their daily needs by relying on the water obtained indirectly in this way.
  Larger mammals such as camels and antelopes use fat metabolism as a “source of water.” The camel’s hump is not used to store water, but to store fat. After fat is broken down, carbon dioxide and water are mainly produced. Take camels as an example. They can store 36 kilograms of fat. Each gram of fat can be decomposed to obtain 1.12 milliliters of water. When they do not drink water for a long time, the camel will convert these fats into quenching thirst.
  Some people may wonder, if fat can be converted into water, then why didn’t the animals in the desert simply evolve into big fat people? This is because although fat can provide water, fat is also an insulator, making the body unable to dissipate heat, so big fat animals will heat to death in the hot desert.
  However, there are some animals that solve this problem well. For example, there is a lizard called Gila monster living in the southern desert of the United States. Their staple food is rodent voles. Gila monsters often encounter food and water shortages, so they usually eat The imported nutrients are stored in the form of fat in the tail. This tail is very fat and takes up one-fifth of the size of their entire body. In this way, the tail will not only affect the body’s heat dissipation, but will also become their tail at a critical time. Move the water source”.