On the first night of the battle between the Bandu and the Julu, the fierce light asked Kṛṣṇa, if this is the battle of Fa-rectification, why did he lose the first battle? Kṛṣṇa replied that the war of Fa-rectification is also a war; war will inevitably have victory or defeat. This is a scene in the famous Indian epic “Mahabharata” in a TV series. The fierce light is the son of the king of the wood pillar, and Krsna is the incarnation of Vishnu, also known as the black sky, also known as Bhagavan. In Hinduism, Vishnu is one of the highest gods, the other two are Brahma and Shiva. So here Krsna is almost a Fa-rectification, and the Fa-rectification is equivalent to the Chinese saying heaven. I have read some of this Indian epic before. I bought a “Bhagavad Gita” about thirty years ago, which is part of “Mahabharata”. It is about the time when the war is about to erupt. Relatives and friends can’t bear to ask Krsna a lot of questions. Since this paragraph involves basic concepts and theories in Hinduism, it has been selected and published in a single line. But this gives the illusion that this is a book advocating war. Later, I saw a short version of “Mahabharata”, which mainly described the war part, and gave me the impression that it was a fight.
Fortunately, the situation changed. One is that the translation of the entire Mahabharata in 2005 was published by the China Social Sciences Press, with a total of six volumes. This is the result of decades of hard work by Ji Xianlin and Jin Kemu and their disciples Zhao Guohua and Huang Baosheng, and is also a major cultural event in the translation of the classics of the Axial Age. Its publication provides convenience for researchers in our country, and also shows a huge space for the world’s multiculturalism. For human beings, there is only one way of heaven or Fa-rectification, but in different regions and groups of people, different historical stories unfold according to the rules of the Fa-rectification, just as chess games that follow the same rules of Go are not repeated. Therefore, what happened in ancient times in India is different from China, from Babylon and Assyria, from Egypt and Israel, and from Greece and Rome. From the perspective of human specific games, the history of human civilization for thousands of years is not enough to show and exhaust all the circumstances that can occur under the rule of Fa-rectification, so that stories that occur in different regions or groups of people cannot be completely repeated and similar. Therefore, the story told by Mahabharata is beyond our familiar scope, and raises issues that were not raised in our history. It is also explained and solved with quite different theories and behaviors.
Another thing is that India released the latest series of Mahabharata TV series in 2013, which lasted 267 episodes. This makes it easy for people who don’t look at the ancient classics to understand the rich content of this epic in their leisure time. It is a huge enjoyment to watch the TV series and read the original book against the important plot. This is history, and it is extremely dramatic. The plot is twisted and twisted. There are often unexpected plot developments, but it is not contrived. It is in line with the logic of human nature. In the play, people often fall into moral dilemmas, toss and turn, wandering and tangling, and they are often solved by experts. The front and back figures are very exciting, and it is needless to say that the five sons of Bundu as the central figure, especially A Zhou ’s extraordinary temperament; their common wife, the black princess Dropodi, is elegant and dignified; and the son of Ganges Vishamo, Rama with axe, silver hair fluttering and heroic martial arts; although the king is pursuing the Fa-rectification, he cherishes selfish thoughts, wandering left and right, unsettled, and performing strangely; as the “worst” role of the enemy, it is also badly vivid and natural; His uncle Shagongni has a high level of cunning and evil, and he is often able to grasp the opponent’s weaknesses wisely. Of course, Krishna is a consistent idol of Indians, a handsome and extraordinary man.
I will quote these two versions of Mahabharata alternately here. I think the TV series is also a version and another translation, and it is quite elegant. As an epic, Mahabharata obviously contains a lot of ancient historical facts. It appears as poetry because in an era without words, people often compile history into poetry to record and inherit. Because poems follow a specific pattern, rhyme and rhythm together, easy to remember, and easy to pass from mouth to mouth, from generation to generation. Thus the form of epic tells us that it must be a true record of the ancient times. But history cannot be completely recorded, nor is it possible today, not to mention the ancient times. Many unrecorded or unexplained parts are replaced with myths, mantras, or prophecies. Today ’s readers do n’t have to mind these mythological parts too much. According to our basic understanding of civilization, a large number of stories, including descriptions of traditions and rules, are logical, but the form is slightly different from other civilizations. This is where I am interested.
From a drama point of view, this is a real tragedy that cannot be matched by Greek tragedies. It is about the descendants of the two brothers of the Kingdom of Julu who hold the country and are gentle. They are cousins to each other, and their elders hope that they will live in harmony and be intimate forever. However, Chikuo Baizi and Bandu Wuzi stepped toward confrontation and hatred step by step, and finally reached the point where they had to fight a bloody and brutal war. And every step is the struggle of the soul, it is like that. Wudu Wuzi even once went to the forest to practice hardships and give up power struggles to avoid conflicts. From the point of view of the specific figures, in addition to the five sons of general degree, in the Julu dynasty, there is a righteous and eloquent veteran Vishmo and the prime minister who is proficient in the Fa-rectification. Follow the Fa on the surface. In order to make his son difficult to succeed to the throne, he persuaded the eldest son to resolutely give up the crown prince, otherwise he would be miserable. But Ajina asked him that there is a tradition in India. The king wants to burn waste for the people every spring. To this end, he hurts some creatures in nature. He has to suffer from hell for a period of time. Does he want to be a king without going to hell? ? After hearing this, Chiguo immediately decided to establish a firm war as crown prince. But as the story unfolded, every seemingly effort to resolve the conflict became further harm.
The real tragedy is to exhaust all the means to avoid tragedy, and still inevitably go to disaster and destruction. In Mahabharata, both warring parties knew the outcome of the war in advance. With the help of Krsna’s ability to foresee the future, the black princess knew that his five sons and Arjuna’s other son would both die violently, and only Surv five sons survived. And Chi Guo and his queen Gantuli also asked the fairy to divination until Chi Guo Baizi died. But even though both sides knew the end and knew that one side would pay a heavy price, it still did not change things in the direction of war. Before the war, Bandu Wuzi had peace talks with the representatives of the Hundred Sons. However, in the end, the enemy did not accept the conditions of sharing to the villages of Wudu Wuzi and no peace was reached. The Black Princess has always been unable to accept the consequences of losing all her sons. For a long time, she couldn’t make up her mind to fight a war to wash away the shame and restore the Fa-rectification in the kingdom. But in the end she understood that illegal acts not only caused the existing harm, but also continued to spread because of insufficiency, which could not be prevented by avoiding; she was humiliated as a queen, how can the dignity of ordinary women be guaranteed? Not only was she personally violated, but the entire Fa-rectification was destroyed. The reason why the difficult enemy still chooses war is that he can’t tolerate the survival of Wudu and he thinks he has the strength to win the war.
Why does he believe he can win? Going back to the dialogue quoted at the beginning of this article, Krsna said that “the battle of Fa-rectification is also a war.” This is to say that the party that insists on Fa-rectification may also fail. Why is this? Isn’t the party who insists on Fa-rectification “getting more help than others”? But those who insist on Fa-rectification also have a fatal weakness, that is, “the pride of Fa-rectification.” What is the pride of Fa-rectification? Those who insist on the Fa-rectification are disdainful and unwilling to use ways that violate the Fa-rectification to gain an advantage or avoid casualties. What’s wrong with this in specific situations or in war? Compared with those who do not abide by the law, those who adhere to the law will have less strategic space. In a game, isn’t the person with a large strategic space more advantageous? In history, we can often see that barbaric nations defeated civilized nations, and troops without a moral baseline defeated those with a moral baseline. Although the Fa-rectification will eventually win, we have indeed seen that the illegal party will win locally and for a certain period of time. Their victory is not only because the party that adheres to the Fa-rectification has “the pride of the Fa-rectification”, but also because the illegal party consciously uses the pride of the Fa-rectification.
For example, the enemy ’s eldest son has repeatedly inflicted damage on the general son of Wudu. For example, he poisoned the second army and designed the Lac Palace to burn to kill the fifth son, but these crimes were not affected by the fifth son and the court. Investigating the heavy minister. According to the Fa-rectification, the enemy will lose the qualification to inherit the throne. However, when the enemy and Shagongni set a trap for Jianzhan to participate in gambling, Jianzhan knew that he had no advantage in rolling the dice, but he believed that obeying the elders ’order to hold the country was in accordance with the Fa, and he had been gambling until he lost the Black Princess. What’s worse is that when the fierce battle lost Bandu Wuzi and their wife Black Princess, they became slaves or slaves. At this time, their views on gambling wins and losses are very different from that of Harden and Sagong. This depends on their inner understanding of the Fa-rectification. This understanding is an internal moral code, and there is no external explicit expression, so that there will be very different standards. In the view of the firm war, only land, wealth, or slaves obtained through a just war are legally owned, but Nandi and Shagongni believe that gambling is also in accordance with the law. Treating slaves, Jianzhan believes that he can be given freedom. For example, after captive Xindu Wang Shengcha was captured, he was spared the crime of kidnapping Black Princess if he was willing to be a slave, but Jianzhan freed him (Vol. II, 496 pages). But when it comes to difficult enemies, it is believed that slaves or slaves can swear, insult, or even kill at will.
In Mahabharata, there are probably two kinds of “the pride of the Fa-rectification”. One is to abide by the oath as abiding by the law. One is to choose more tolerant and benevolent standards to implement within the scope of formal rules. The former takes Vishama and the firm battle as the most. “Words must be believed, actions must be achieved” is clearly a cross-civilized virtue, but it always has its upper limit. This is when obeying the oath and higher values, such as the protection of human life, dignity and property, conflicts with the basic constitution and the justice of the law, then obeying the oath may violate the law. But in ancient India, the emphasis on observing oaths exceeded the appropriate level, and the more serious the harm caused by observing oaths, the more proud the oath-observers. This may be the reason why the firm battle did not break the oath even when the Black Princess was humiliated. In Mahabharata, Kṛṣṇa criticized this “pride of Fa-rectification.” Regarding the humiliation of the Black Princess, he criticized both Vishma and the firm fight. It was the people who insisted on Fa-rectification in both parties at that time were subject to the observance of the oath, and they put the Black Princess in a state of humiliation. The black princess was humiliated into a shameful shame that could not wash the snow without a fight. In other words, it was precisely because the seemingly adherents of the law were obsessed with keeping the oath that led to the bloody war that later almost destroyed the entire Julu.
The latter kind of “pride of Fa-rectification” is excessive tolerance. If you carefully compare the behaviors of Bandu Wuzi and Zhiguo Baizi, or their representatives’ hard fights and difficult enemies, they will find that they are different in their own moral constraints and the other party’s moral requirements, so they are also asymmetric . The general Wuzi’s moral restraint is higher than that of the Hundred Sons. After they have won under the official rules, they will not use this victory to exhaust their interests and harm the losing party as much as possible. And the holding of a hundred children may be possible. Therefore, when the two sides decide to win or lose in the formal rules, the general Wuzi may get a smaller benefit or suffer more damage, while the holding of the Baizi may get a greater benefit or less damage. This will affect the strength comparison and advantage change of both sides. For example, in the final battle, Vishama ’s official identity was the head coach of the Julu Elephant City, and the five sons of Bandu did n’t have the heart to fight against him because he was their uncle, so in a few days, Vishma Mo has wiped out most of the army of the Bandu tribe. In the end, there were only two. The Bandu tribe is about to be wiped out. In the extreme case of failure, Krsna inspires Bandu Wuzi to fight Vishamo, but they still can’t fight him with all his strength. At this time, the female hair became a man. Because of a vow of the previous life and the desire to seek relief, Vishma laid down his weapon. After the hair shot the first arrow at him, the five sons shot him at the same time. He killed. But as Kṛṣṇa said, the appearance of Shufa only provided an excuse for them to kill Vishma.
This “pride of Fa-rectification” can also be expressed as an asymmetry of information between the truth-teller and the liar. This is obviously disadvantageous to the former. For example, the firm war refuses to tell lies, and even if it is required to hide for a period of one year, a fake name cannot be used. Fortunately, the clever black princess gave him a nickname between husband and wife, and he didn’t think it was against the Fa. In the final duel with Drona, Krishna asked Jianzhan to tell Drona that his son Ma Si was dead, but the Kenshi refused, but the Horror killed a man named “Ma Si “Elephants,” Ken said, “Ma Si is dead.” On the hard side, they first tricked Bandu Wuzi and his mother to live in Lac Palace and waited for the opportunity to burn them; then they deceived Jianzhan to hold a “friendly dice gambling”. All his wives became slaves. It is even more asymmetrical that Jianzhan still accepts the residence requirement of Lac Palace in case of doubt, and accepts the invitation of gambling even if he knows that gambling is a bad habit. As a result, they all brought about the failure at that time. The Bandu family escaped from the fire in the Lac Palace. After losing the black princess and being humiliated, the Bandu Wuzi and the black princess went to the forest to practice for twelve years and hide for one year, which can be regarded as a failure at that time. This is the failure caused by “the pride of the Fa-rectification”.
“Pride of Fa-rectification” will also bring about asymmetry in timing. In the final battle between the Bandu and Julu, the two sides stipulated that they could not fight after sunset and before sunrise. If you attack the opponent during the truce, you will obviously gain an advantage against it. Once Arjuna was designed to be killed because of her son’s passion, and ran into the enemy camp in anger at night, the purpose of which was to vent his anger, but was finally stopped by a hard fight to “not violate the law.” However, the enemy side attacked the Bandu camp twice at night, killing the black princess’s five sons for the second time. This can often be seen in the history of the world. For example, the Battle of Horsetail in the French and Chinese Fleet in 1884. On July 14th, the French fleet sailed into the Mawei Military Port in Fujian under the name of “Travel”. Officials of the Qing Dynasty did not know their true intentions, and ordered the Chinese fleet to “not allow the firing of guns first, and the offenders will win if they win.” Also not issued “. The French fleet was moored for more than a month, reconnaissance the terrain, and selected favorable tide opportunities to attack the Chinese fleet. In the longer term, “pride in Fa-rectification” will also bring about strategic failure, although it is still “temporary” from a historical perspective. In Mahabharata, those who do illegal things, Nandi and Shagongni all have a clear understanding of “the pride of the Fa-rectification” and the intention to make full use of it. The reason why Shagongni believes that the firm battle will enter his trap is largely his judgment of the firm pride of the firm battle. Because of this, his conspiracy is often successful.
Looking at human history from this perspective seems to have one more dimension. People always complain about their disasters and hardships, doubt that God is not merciful, and ask why the bad guys are rampant. If you consider the “pride of Fa-rectification” and the use of “bad guys” in this Fa-rectification pride, you will find that this will increase the power of those who violate the Fa-rectification, broaden their strategic space, and help them adopt more “flexible” and bottomless Means to win the war against the practitioners. Therefore, it is not so strange that the history of mankind is that those who violate the Fa-rectification often dominate and rule. Once Krsna said to Arjuna, the Fa-rectification is like a castle on the beach. People build it, and it will be washed away and collapsed by the sea again. . This analogy is really vivid and relevant. Civilizations formed by humans through hardships often contain the Fa-rectification that restricts people’s behavior, but if someone violates the Fa-rectification, they may gain some advantage. This is the so-called “civilization paradox”. Between nations, this manifests itself as the conquest of civilized nations by the barbarians; within the country, it manifests as conspiracy to seize power. They all make use of the restraint of the rules of civilization on those who follow the Fa-rectification and the advantages they bring when they violate the Fa-rectification.
So, how to solve the problem of “the pride of Fa-rectification”? Can humans solve this problem? From the story of Mahabharata, the lessons can be summarized. The first lesson is not to be stubborn on oaths. This is a mistake made by Jianzhan, Vishamo, Viduro, Drona, and Garna. None of them seem to see that there is a Fa-rectification higher than the oath. As Kṛṣṇa said, Fa-rectification is a big tree, and vows are only its branches, national laws are its branches, and its roots are sympathy. If the root of the tree is damaged for the branch, it is upside down. Without sympathy, anger and resistance to injury and insult, the oath is not only useless, it may even become an accomplice to sin. In the same way, Krishna criticized Vishma, Drona, and Garna, and they were finally convinced. So this problem may be solved. Once again, they will behave differently. In other civilizations, such as the Chinese civilization, this problem seems to have been resolved. For example, Confucius said: “Words must be believed, and actions must be fruited; so are the villains.” “Historical Records” “Confucius Family” records that Confucius was blocked by the uncles on the way to Weiguo, and was released after agreeing not to go to Weiguo; but he ran to Weiguo just now. Zigong questioned, and Confucius said: “If you want a ally, God will not listen.” If it is an ally under the city, God will not blame the breach of contract.
The other kind of “pride of the Fa-rectification” is not very easy to correct, that is, excessive tolerance for the lawless. Kṛṣṇa has a full understanding of this, so he went down in person and went into battle to serve as a driver for Arjuna. The driver seems to be a lower profession, but in Hinduism, the driver is the one who decides the direction of the carriage. As the Prime Minister Viduro, who is proficient in the Fa, said: “The human body is a car, the soul is a driver, and the senses are horses.” (Vol. 3, page 169). So Krsna decides where Arjuna, the strongest of the five sons, is attacking and fighting with, thus deeply participating in this war. Compared with Bandu Wuzi, he seems more “warlike”. He firmly believed that there must be such a war, and it must be won. At the critical moment when he believes in determining victory or defeat, he does not hesitate to do it himself. When Wudu Wuzi couldn’t bear to start with Vishamo, he even violated his oath of not participating in the war. When he drove Garner’s chariot into the wilderness and drove his wheels into the quagmire, he also urged Arjuna to kill Garner in violation of the rules of war. When confronting Vishnu, Drona, and Garna, Krsna personally talked to them, prompting them to lay down their weapons. When Bandu Wuzi doubted whether his proposal was in compliance with the Fa-rectification, Krsna argued that the victory of this war was in compliance with the Fa-rectification.
Kṛṣṇa has been preaching “Action Yoga” to Arjuna, that is, he only asks whether the behavior is correct, and does not care about success or failure, but why did he want victory in the war this time? Perhaps it is that the passing of the Fa-rectification depends on the punishment of the illegality. But because of the pride of Fa-rectification, illegal behaviors cannot be punished. It is for this reason that the extreme event that led to the war-the Black Princess is humiliated. This war may be a total liquidation. In “Mahabharata”, he is the incarnation of Dhamma, and he knows clearly that “the pride of Dhamma” has made Dhamma impossible, so he played in person. Does this mean that he believes that mankind is hopeless, so he can’t just let the five sons waste the chance of victory? In fact, at the end of “Mahabharata”, it seems that the answer is given. On the surface, Bandu’s five sons survived, and Arjuna’s son’s passionate wife gave birth to an heir, and he finally succeeded to the throne. But Krsna made it clear that the descendants of the original Julu and Bandu were all wiped out. The five sons of Bandu were actually born by the gods of righteousness Yan Mo, Fengshen Fayou, Thunder God due to the blessings of Datura and Shuangmatong, not the sons of mortals; the passionate posthumous son has been killed by Ma Si with Brahma magic weapon, Kui Shina revived by divine power is another person born by divine power. The winner like Wudu actually represents a new human being.
This could not help but remind people of the Great Flood in the Torah. “Genesis” says, “Jehovah sees that there is a lot of sin on earth, and all he thinks about is evil all day long.” “He regretted creating man on the earth and grieved in his heart.” So he used the flood to wipe out all humans, except Noah. Noah, the righteous man in the eyes of Jehovah, represents the rebirth of mankind. This is similar to the rebirth of the Bandu people after the war. This seems to indicate that the spontaneous actions of human beings are not necessarily able to form a just and effectively governed society. If there is no correction by external forces, human society may perish in the fratricide. The so-called external force is actually the Fa-rectification itself, or the Tao of Heaven. Illegal rule itself is a kind of external punishment. It allows some people to exploit and squeeze other people, and it allows the former to suppress the resistance of the latter, so it must create hatred between the crowds, only when the appropriate time erupts. This seems to be a destiny ending. In Mahabharata, there is a long space from the humiliation of the Black Princess to the outbreak of the war, and they are all about how the two sides try to avoid the war. Among them, “Good offices” is hundreds of pages long. But the war broke out. Generally speaking, the more rampant and protracted the wrongdoing of a society, the more violent the war to correct it, the more likely it is to destroy the entire society.
After the Battle of Mahabharata, have humans become better? should be. Why do you see it? It is the “Mahabharata” itself. This classic, which appeared as early as the fourth century BC, is the description and summary of this painful lesson of mankind. It clearly points out that “the pride of the Fa-rectification” is the key issue, and clarifies what is the Fa-rectification through Krsna’s words and deeds. Therefore, Mahabharata is a classic that has become a watershed in history. The Indian civilization after it is a civilization that allows humans to enjoy their society. In Genesis, Jehovah said to Noah after the flood: “I have a covenant with you, and all flesh and blood will no longer be extinct by the flood, and there will be no more flood destruction.” Noah and his descendants Is it trustworthy? Because of the Five Moses (Old Testament), it is said that it was formed in the fifth century BC, and its history should be traced back thousands of years. During this period, Abraham, the descendant of Noah, made a contract with Jehovah successively. His descendant Moses went up to Mount Sinai to meet Jehovah. From the 6th to the 3rd century BC, this is the era of human axis. There is also the Golden Age of Greece and the Spring and Autumn Period of China. The emergence of Greek philosophy, drama and mythology, the emergence of Chinese classics, “Shangshu”, “Book of Changes”, “Book of Songs”, “Spring and Autumn”, etc., appeared Confucius and Laozi. After the Axis Age, humanity has truly entered the age of civilization.
From this point of view, the Axis Age has transformed mankind in spirit. The reason may be the correction of pride in Fa-rectification. In the pre-war situation described in Mahabharata, although some people often pointed out that someone’s behavior “does not conform to the law”, there is no legal procedure to punish the lawlessness. Among the royal family, unless the offender himself accepts the punishment, there is no possibility of punishment. What’s more, the pride of Fa-rectification often forgives unlawfulness. The classics of the Axis Age contain the content of “the law to be enforced” and focus on the negative regulations, that is, the restrictions on illegality. For example, “The Ten Commandments of Moses” is to stipulate what can not be done, such as not to kill, not to be greedy for the wife of others, if violated, the punishment is severe, of course, it may be too severe. For example, Moses’ punishment for those who worship the golden calf is to prove that the “Ten Commandments” are not just for fun. In traditional China, the Fa-rectification in reality is often referred to as “rites”. Violating the Fa-rectification is “indecent”. In “Book of Rites”, rites are often expressed in a negative way. The so-called “rites” means “don’t be impolite”. “The Mean” in “Book of Rites” says “three hundred etiquettes, three thousand etiquettes”. The previous explanations did not distinguish between “ceremonies” and “ceremonies”. In my opinion, Confucianism emphasizes voluntary rituals, but sometimes it has to use “prestige” to punish those who are seriously rude.
“Mahabharata” tells us that if we are not proud of punishment for lawlessness in our daily order and take pride in it, we will inevitably fight a war to exterminate humanity. In order to avoid such a tragic result, we must steadfastly work hard at ordinary times, put away the pride of the Fa-rectification, and appropriately punish the wrongdoing. Hayek’s later “rule of proper conduct” may be a modern expression of the law. He also said that the rules of proper conduct are all negative. This is a very good and concise summary. And negation requires means. Perhaps, the civilization created in the Axial Age was to avoid the decline of Fa-rectification inevitably caused by the pride of Fa-rectification with negative rules. No matter how low our evaluation of the history after the Axial Age is today, returning to the situation at that time, the order established in the Axial Age will eventually enable human beings without resorting to “external forces”-in Mahabharata This “external force” is transformed into Krsna-and effectively governs himself. “Civilization” began.