Coronary heart disease, that is, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, is mainly caused by coronary atherosclerosis that narrows or obstructs the vascular lumen, or changes in coronary artery function leading to myocardial ischemia and hypoxia. Coronary heart disease is an ischemic heart disease. The main risk factors include age, gender, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, diet, obesity, genetics, and lack of physical activity. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease with a long course and rapid changes in condition. Patients need to take drugs for a long time and pay attention to regular follow-up visits. In addition to conventional treatment, patients with coronary heart disease also need to pay attention to daily care and develop good eating and living habits.
(1) Reasonable diet
Patients with coronary heart disease should pay attention to dietary restraint, eat small and frequent meals, not overeating, and not to be too hungry or full, because bad eating habits will increase the heart burden of the patient. Patients with coronary heart disease should limit the consumption of animal fat. Animal fat contains more saturated fatty acids. Excessive consumption will increase blood cholesterol and cause arteriosclerosis. Patients can add appropriate amounts of protein, such as eggs, fish, lean meat, etc. At the same time, patients should adhere to a low-salt and low-fat diet, limit the amount of sodium and salt, and the daily intake should be less than 6g. It is recommended to use a quantifiable salt spoon. Patients should ensure adequate potassium and calcium intake, with a high calcium content. The foods include rape, celery, mushrooms, fungus, dried shrimps and seaweed. Patients should eat more green vegetables, fruits, crude fiber foods, and soy foods, such as tomatoes, celery, apples, beans, and brown rice to avoid water and sodium retention and aggravate the condition. In addition, patients with coronary heart disease should quit smoking, limit alcohol, control their weight, eat more digestible foods, maintain smooth stools, and avoid constipation.
(2) Standardized medication
The family members of the patient should understand the predisposing factors of coronary heart disease together with the patient, such as overwork, emotional agitation, strenuous exercise, fullness, and forced bowel movements. Family members should inform patients that if they develop symptoms such as chest tightness, angina pectoris, and dyspnea, they should call 120 emergency number immediately, and then lie on their backs without moving, and there is nitroglycerin under the tongue, waiting for medical treatment. Family members should also help patients understand the names, dosages, effects, side effects, and precautions of the drugs they are taking, and warn patients to strictly follow the doctor’s instructions to take the drugs, avoid increasing or decreasing the amount of the drug, stopping the drug or doubling the missed dose, etc., and do daily supervision . Patients and their families can carry necessary emergency medicines, such as nitroglycerin, quick-acting Jiuxin pills, etc.
(3) Healthy mentality
Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease with a long course of disease. In addition, patients need long-term medication treatment, which can cause anxiety and tension in some patients. At this time, the patient’s family members should accompany the patient more, help the patient maintain an optimistic and peaceful attitude, and create a good family atmosphere for the patient. Family members can listen to music, read books, grow flowers, or practice calligraphy with the patient to stabilize the patient’s mood, so as to avoid the patient’s bad emotions such as irritability, excitement and depression. Family members should allow patients to correctly understand their disease and maintain a positive and optimistic attitude at all times.
(Four) moderate exercise
In daily life, patients with coronary heart disease can exercise properly. Aerobic exercise can effectively improve the patient’s cardiovascular function and increase the patient’s myocardial endurance to hypoxia, thereby improving the patient’s physical condition. It should be noted that patients with coronary heart disease should avoid excessive exercise. If the patient has difficulty breathing, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and sweating during exercise, stop the exercise immediately. Patients with coronary heart disease can also choose some home exercises, such as walking stairs, jogging on a treadmill, and practicing Tai Chi. Elderly patients with poor resistance must exercise with the company of nursing staff or family members to avoid accidents.
Patients with coronary heart disease should do daily care and maintain a good lifestyle. Family members and patients should also learn about coronary heart disease care through multiple channels to reduce the number of disease attacks. In addition, patients should standardize their medication, follow up regularly, and actively treat them.