Comparison of hatching effects of five breeds of laying hens

  at present, China imported from abroad laying hens varieties Roman (Roman pink egg shells, Roman Brown Layers), Highland Brown-shell laying hens[1], independently cultivated laying hen varieties include Jinghong series laying hens, Dawu Jingbai series laying hens and Nongda series laying hens, etc.[2]. Hamalia Daleli et al. [3] studied the different egg shapes of the Tianhei chicken and proved that the egg shape of the breeding egg has no substantial effect on the hatching effect during the incubation process. Song Yuanjian et al[4] found that the egg shape of the Roman brown-shelled layer should not be too round, not too long, nor too large or too small, and the egg weight should also be within a certain range, only the egg shape is centered , Eggs with medium egg weights are the most suitable for hatching to increase hatchability. Huang Mingying et al. [5]’s research on Tibetan chickens in plain areas shows that egg shape is positively correlated with egg weight, that is, the better the egg shape and the larger the egg weight, the higher the fertilization rate of the breeding egg and the higher the hatching rate of the fertilized egg. . After analyzing the effect of egg shape index on the hatching effect of eggs, Zhang Chunzhen et al. [6] pointed out that there is almost no difference in hatching effect between hatching eggs with different egg shape indexes, that is, the hatching effect of hatching eggs has nothing to do with their shape. The hatching effect of laying hens directly determines the economic benefits of the laying hen market. The above-mentioned research provides a reliable reference for the laying hen market and lays a solid foundation for the laying hen industry.
  The purpose of this study is to explore the hatching effects of five egg hens, compare the effects of the same conditions and in the same incubator on the hatching effects of five egg hens, so as to select suitable egg hens for breeding in Shanxi Province , Provide theoretical basis and practical reference for the application of hatching eggs, and bring greater economic benefits to the chicken farm.
  1 Materials and Methods
  1.1 Test Materials Design and experimental groups
  were selected Hy brown hens, egg shell powder Roman, Jingbaili layers 939, Beijing Red hens egg shell powder and ISA total of five layers species, Each species is a test group, which are test group Ⅰ, test group Ⅱ, test group Ⅲ, test group Ⅳ and test group Ⅴ. Each group has 3 repetitions, each repetition is 200, and 5 test groups total eggs 3,000 pieces, the trial lasted for 21 days. In order to reduce errors, when selecting breeding eggs, the weight of the selected breeding eggs should be between 50 g and 65 g. Sterilize all the eggs for 24 hours after collection. After storage, place the eggs in the egg storage tray with the tip facing down. The storage trays should not overlap more than 20 trays. The temperature of the storage room is 18 ℃ and the humidity is 50%~60. %.
  1.2 Test place and time
  trials (Figure 1) in ecological Ltd. hatchery Wenshui County of Shanxi Province in 2020 was Jinke Sheng May 8 to May 28 2020.
  1.3 Test equipment
  incubator apparatus is preferably love EIF DMS-19200 automatic Box Incubators (FIG. 2). The incubator integrates incubation and hatching. It has a stable and reliable automatic egg turning system, a control system that can automatically control temperature and humidity, and a good ventilation system. It can hold 9,600 eggs at a time. The portable egg-lighting device is produced by Shenyang Dongjifeng Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd.
  1.4 Incubation and hatching
  The hatching of the breeding eggs (Figure 3) is carried out according to the conventional hatching procedures. Before entering the incubation, clean the incubator, mix and seal the fumigation incubator with 30 mL/m3 formaldehyde solution and 15 g/m3 potassium permanganate solution for 20 to 30 minutes, and disinfect the incubator and empty egg trays with 3% hydrogen peroxide 10 min to 20 min, and preheat the eggs in the incubator for 12 h. Under the same incubation conditions, variable temperature incubation was adopted, and the test eggs were marked in the same batch (Table 1). Incubation method is whole batch incubation and constant temperature incubation. Turn the eggs once every 2 h. On the 5th day of incubation, a “head photo” was taken to pick out infertile eggs, dead eggs, and broken eggs, and record the number of eggs picked up. On the 11th day of incubation, a “second photo” was carried out, and the eggs were removed and the dead embryos were picked out at the same time, and the number picked up was recorded. When the chicks are hatched from the 21st to the 22nd day of incubation, the male and female are distinguished according to the feather color. There is little difference between the chicks of each breed, and the sex can be identified by the feathers of the chicks. White feathers are male chicks (Figure 4), and yellow feathers are female chicks ( Figure 5). Record the total weight of the chicks of each breed, and count the number of chicks, female chicks and healthy chicks. Identify the health status of the chicks by observing the color and tidiness, vitality, egg yolk absorption and weight of the chicks. A healthy chick is a healthy chick, which is characterized by clean and shiny down hair, plump plumage, lively spirit, good umbilical absorption, strong physique, strong standing, sensitive to light, and body shape, otherwise weak chicks (Figure 6) .
  1.5 index measuring
  fertilization rate = fertilized egg / × 100% the number of hatching
  fertilized eggs hatch = the number – the number of fine without eggs
  fertilized eggs hatching Number = / × 100% fertilized eggs
  into the hatching incubators = hatching number number / × 100% hatch into
  healthy young healthy young rate = number / number × 100% hatching
  number = pullets hatching number – the number of male young
  pullets pullets rate = number / number hatching × 100 %.
  1.6 data processing
  test data were analyzed using SAS Vol 6.12, the result of “mean ± standard deviation” represents, ANOVA statistical method call, Duncan’s multiple comparison test for significant differences.
  RESULTS
  breeding egg laying species five 2.1 weight comparison
  can be seen from Table 2, there was a significant difference in weight (P <0.05) in each test group kinds of balls, the maximum test group Ⅳ (Beijing red layers), the average The egg weight reached 64.89 g, and the smallest was the test group V (Isa powder shell layer hen), with an average egg weight of 59.72 g, which was 5.17 g difference.   2.2 five varieties hens egg fertilization rate comparison   is apparent from Table 3, treatment Ⅰ, treatment Ⅱ, Ⅲ test group, the test group Ⅳ, Ⅴ hatchability test group was 92.7%, 90.7%, 92.4% respectively, 94.0% and 95.6%, test group V (Isa powder shell layer) had the highest egg fertilization rate, and test group II (Roman powder shell layer) had the lowest egg fertilization rate. The difference between the two was 4.9%. The incubation rates of fertilized eggs in test group I, test group II, test group III, test group IV, and test group V were 95.3%, 94.1%, 95.3%, 95.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Test group V (Isha powder shell eggs) The hatching rate of fertilized eggs was the highest in chickens, and the lowest in test group II (Roman powder-shell laying hens), with a difference of 1.7%. The healthy young rate of test group I, test group II, test group III, test group IV, and test group V were 98.8%, 96.9%, 98.2%, 99.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, and the lowest was test group II (Roman powder shell Laying hens), the highest is Test IV (Jinghong Laying Hens), the difference is 1.4%.   2.3 hatched chicks pullets five kinds of hens species   is apparent from Table 4, the lowest rate of treatment Ⅱ pullets (Roman shell powder layers) of, respectively, than treatment Ⅰ (Hy brown hens), test Ⅲ Group (Jingbai 939 layer), test group IV (Jinghong layer), test group V (Isa powder-shell layer) lower by 7.3%, 11.4%, 6.8% and 11.5%, but between the various layer breeds The difference was not significant (P>0.05).
  3 Discussion
  3.1 Egg laying five kinds of heavy species Comparison of
  protein species it directly affects the size of eggs hatching rate, the different layers have different varieties of the best egg weight range, breed, egg weight thereof is also different. There was no significant difference in egg weight among the five layer breeds used in this experiment (P>0.05). The largest was Jinghong layer with an average of 64.89 g, and the smallest was Yisha powder shell layer with an average of 59.72 g. Therefore, when selecting breeding eggs, the egg weight should be above 50 g, but not more than 65 g. The optimal egg weight range of breeding eggs will vary from breed to breed. If the breeding eggs are too large (heavier than 65 g), the hatching rate of laying hens will be reduced; if the breeding eggs are too small (lighter than 50 g), the hatching rate will also be affected. This is consistent with the research results of Li Yunyu et al. [7].
  Egg fertilization rate of 3.2 comparative analysis of five species of hens
  fertilization rate is an important indicator of quality and breeder hatching effect. The five laying hens selected in this experiment showed no significant difference in the fertilization rate of breeding eggs (P>0.05). The fertilization rate was the highest in the Isa powder shell layer, reaching 95.6%, and the lowest was the Roman powder shell layer. 90.7%, the difference between the two is 4.9%, and Yisha powder-shell laying hens dominate, which is similar to the results of Li Xiaohong [8]. In terms of hatching rate of breeding eggs, there is no significant difference among the five layer breeds (P>0.05), which is similar to the results of Zhang An et al. [9] and Ma Fashun et al. [10].
  3.3 Comparative analysis of the rate of hens and chicks of five laying hen breeds
  One of the most important performance indicators for breeding eggs in hatcheries and breeder farms is the rate of brooding chicks. The rate of brooding determines the value of breeding hens. Increasing the rate of brooding hens has direct economic value to professional chicken farmers and is also a hatching. One of the hot issues of great concern to farms and breeder farms. Table 4 shows that the percentages of hens and chicks of various laying hen breeds are similar, and there is no significant difference (P>0.05). This is related to heredity. In heredity theory, the probability of male and female appearing is the same, and the ratio of the two is close to 1:1, so the female and chick rate of each breed of laying hens are not significantly different (P>0.05), which is similar to Bai Jian et al. [11] The research results are consistent.
  4 Conclusion
  breeding egg laying species in this test with a five highest weight is Jinghong hens, Isa is the smallest egg shell powder, egg weight range are in line with each variety. In terms of hatching rate of breeding eggs, Roman powder shell layer has the lowest, and Yisha powder shell layer has the highest, which are 0.5%, 1.7%, 0.5%, 0.4% higher than other layer breeds respectively. In terms of the healthy chick rate, Jinghong layer has the highest rate and Jingbai 939 layer has the lowest. The percentage of female chicks out of the shell is related to the breed of layer, that is, the genetic background. This experiment found that the difference between the breeds of laying hens is not significant, among which the Isa powder shell layer has the highest and the Roman powder shell layer has the lowest. This experiment cannot explain which layer hen breed has the best egg incubation performance. The chicken farm needs to hatch according to its actual situation, thereby increasing economic benefits.
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