Why is the giraffe’s neck so long?

  Did giraffes evolve long necks just to reach high leaves? Do not. Recently, scientists have discovered by studying the fossils of an early giraffe about 17 million years ago, the disc-horned deer, that courtship competition between male giraffes also contributed to the evolution of longer giraffe necks.
  The study shows that the cervical vertebrae of the disc-horned deer are very thick, and the joints between the head and neck and between the cervical vertebrae are the most complex among mammals. This structure is suitable for high-speed impacts, which also indicates that the disc-horned deer may often have violent fighting behaviors . Scientists believe that the open grassland where the pan-horned deer lives is relatively barren and not as comfortable as the forest environment. The resulting survival pressure may have promoted the extreme courtship competition within its species, and the head and neck suitable for collision are the “weapon” of the pan-horned deer in courtship “. Today’s giraffes also flick their necks and head-butt rivals during courtship. The two species have similar pedigrees and similar evolutionary environmental backgrounds, so scientists speculate that their evolutionary strategies are also the same, that is, courtship competition between males also promotes the evolution of long necks in giraffes.

  In the past, scientists have observed parrots using their beaks to help them climb, but they weren’t sure whether the beaks were propelling the parrot forward or helping it maintain balance.
  Recently, scientists have confirmed through research that parrots use their beaks as “third limbs” to climb. Scientists used high-speed cameras and sensors to track the red-faced parrot’s climbing activity. They found that once the pitch angle exceeds 45°, the red-faced parrot intermittently begins to use its beak as a “third limb” for climbing; The beak moves forward, and the force generated by the “third limb” is actually comparable to the force generated by the feet. While many birds climb vertically, parrots are the only ones known to use their beaks as a “third limb.” As for why parrots climb in this way, further research is needed.

  Recently, scientists discovered the world’s earliest insect rearing behavior in Daohugou Township, Chengde, Hebei Province: Among the 157 fossils of the carat waterer bug, there were 30 adult females carrying eggs. The discovery pushes back direct evidence of insect parenting behavior by nearly 40 million years.
  Although the cara water bug looks like today’s dragon lice, but the dragon lice is a Coleoptera, and the water water bug is a Hemiptera, which is very different. The study found that 5 to 6 rows of compact eggs, 6 to 7 in each row, were found on the left middle tibia of the female individual of the egg-carrying stinkbug. The diameter of the eggs was 1.14 to 1.20 mm. . The left middle tibia of these individuals is thicker than that of the right middle tibia, even thicker than that of male individuals.
  Scientists speculate that this egg-carrying behavior of cara waterlodgers is a strategy to cope with the pressure of survival, which can improve the hatching rate and survival rate of offspring. Interestingly, this is the first time that the phenomenon of foot-carrying eggs has been found in insects. Previously, this phenomenon was only found in aquatic arthropods. Does this mean that aquatic arthropods learned this trick from the cara waterer? Currently unknown.