According to the 2018 Global Cancer Statistics Report, there were approximately 18.1 million new cancer cases and approximately 9.6 million deaths worldwide in 2018. Some cancers, such as liver cancer, esophageal cancer, and gastric cancer, account for about half of the global incidence. Cancer has become one of the leading causes of death in the Chinese population.
According to the 2019 National Cancer Report, an average of more than 10,000 people are diagnosed with cancer every day in our country, and 7.5 people are diagnosed with cancer every minute. For more than 10 years, the incidence of malignant tumors has maintained an increase of about 3.9% each year, and the mortality rate has maintained an increase of 2.5% each year. The burden of cancer continues to rise. In addition to life threats, the treatment of patients with intermediate and advanced cancers consumes a lot of human and financial resources. The annual medical expenses caused by malignant tumors exceed 220 billion, which undoubtedly brings huge economic and social burdens on families and society.
The relationship between tumors and cancer
As we all know, tumors are divided into benign tumors and malignant tumors. Malignant tumors mainly include two categories, one is sarcoma, which originates from mesenchymal tissue; the other is called cancer, which originates from epithelial tissue. Therefore, cancer is subordinate to tumors. In life, the term “cancer” refers to all malignant tumors.
The most important difference between a malignant tumor and a benign tumor is that cancer grows, infiltrates, and metastasizes in the body without restriction. Benign tumors have no ability to infiltrate and metastasize.
Second, the tumor problem is also a problem of aging
It is not difficult to find that tumor patients are mainly middle-aged and elderly people, especially elderly men. More than 3 million elderly people are diagnosed with cancer each year, and more than 2 million die, and they are increasing year by year. Young people under the age of 45 only account for about 10% of cancer patients. It can be seen that the tumor problem is mainly the problem of aging. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is an important issue related to the livelihood of middle-aged and elderly people, and the key to solving it is to prevent the occurrence and development of cancer.
The importance of early cancer detection
The tumor mortality rate in China is nearly 50 to 100% higher than that in developed countries. Why is the difference so great? The root cause is that it was too late when the cancer was discovered. Cancer patients are rarely found because of active medical examinations and anti-cancer screenings. This has led to the unsatisfactory effect of cancer treatment and the large expenditure of human and material resources.
The key to cancer prevention is early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment. Cancer can be prevented or diagnosed early, and early cancer can be cured. Most early cancers can be eradicated by surgery and achieve long-term survival.
If we move the border forward and increase prevention efforts, the anti-cancer work will be more effective.
4. Knowledge is health, cancer screening is important
Anti-cancer physical examination and early cancer screening are playing an increasingly important role in cancer diagnosis.
Anti-cancer physical examination items include:
(1) Cytological examination of sputum
(B) Fecal Occult Blood Test: Once a year, the age of 50 and over, collect specimens (two) once a day for 3 consecutive days. Those with positive test results should undergo further colonoscopy.
(3) Digital rectal examination: once a year, regardless of gender, after the age of 40.
Sigmoidoscopy: done once a year after the age of 50.
Above, do it every other year, after two negative, check every 3 to 5 years.
(D) B-ultrasound: abdominal, pelvic, breast, thyroid, etc.
(5) Low-dose CT of the chest: Currently recognized methods for excluding lung cancer.
(6) Gynecological pelvic examination: women 20 to 40 years old once every 3 years; after the age of 40 years, once a year.
Cervical smear cytology: Women who have sex have a scrape once a year. After two negatives, changed to every 3 years. At the time of menopause, a scrape test and pelvic examination should be done; endometrial biopsy should be performed if there is a risk of uterine cancer.
(7) Breast self-examination: once a month.
Molybdenum target photography: Basic mammography should be done once in the 35 to 40 years old for future control. Over 50 years old once a year, under 50 years of age is determined by the physician.
B-ultrasound: Oriental women are valuable.
MRI (nuclear magnetic resonance): high accuracy.
(8) Tumor markers: targeted at high-risk groups.
Five, four magic weapons for cancer prevention
(1) Reasonable diet to prevent “cancer from the mouth”. Such as three types of strong carcinogens (see Table 1).
Table 1.Three types of strong carcinogens
(2) Take appropriate exercise to avoid obesity and maintain good sleep;
(3) Quit smoking and limit alcohol;
(4) Maintaining psychological balance.
The human body can produce more than 3,000 to 6,000 cancer cells every day. Our body does not wait to die. The role of “natural killer cells” is to attack and destroy cancer cells. Good health care habits can protect and regulate the body’s immune function to “kill cancer.” And a low mood can cause the power of “natural killer cells” to drop by more than 20%. Smoking, drinking, not exercising, not paying attention to food, feeling bad, depressed, and anxious, will also greatly reduce your ability to resist cancer.
24 Words for Health
Yi Yang Tian Nian
Many cancer preventions can be achieved by establishing a healthy lifestyle and staying away from the causative factors. In addition, regular physical examinations, timely consultations and cancer screening when relevant symptoms occur, learning to maintain a peaceful and optimistic attitude, and controlling your emotions are also very important. To prevent cancer is to do what we can and do them as well as possible.