1. Viking originated in the
European language system. The name viking is generally synonymous with Viking. The term Viking has appeared on the ancient Nordic runestone in the Navia, and is a person engaged in the maritime industry in the Gulf. The old saying of Iceland also means “sea adventure”. The Vikings belong to the original tribes of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, who use the same language – Ancient Norwegian or Old Norse. They were first called “people from the North” by the world, and soon they were called “Vikings.” Now the term “Viking” can be used to describe a Nordic person who is engaged in the maritime industry, perhaps in a peaceful manner, such as trading in commodities; or in a struggle, such as plundering foreign property and returning sail . They engaged in extensive overseas trade and colonial expansion. In the early days of the pirates, the Vikings launched a fierce attack on the English coasts and continents of monasteries, churches and other vulnerable areas. They were thus portrayed as murderous predators. But in reality they are both pioneers and invaders. They are both great explorers and robbers who are wicked and incompetent. They are hard-working businessmen and cold conquerors. They are also carrying out destruction while they are pioneering.
According to historical records, in 793, the monastery in Lindisfontein on the east coast of England was destroyed and robbed. The perpetrators were a group of Nordic people who crossed the sea by long ships. They arrived quickly, and they quickly disappeared after slashing the monks and plundering property. The style of the Nordic people established the name of a cruel pirate. They caused the people in Western Europe’s strong panic, people everywhere pray for a new prayer in the church at the time a “good heart ah God, please bless me from the group of ruthless Viking magic hands now!”
This day and age, that is, The 8th and 11th centuries AD was the famous “Viking Age” in Sweden.
2. The life of the Vikings
The Vikings’ character is straightforward and heroic, and it is not unrelated to the local climatic conditions. The Nordic region in which they live is extremely bitter and cold, and is covered by thick layers of ice and snow all year round. Therefore, it can be said that the living environment of the Nordic people is actually very bad. And Montesquieu said in “The Spirit of the Law”: “The cold air tightens the fiber ends of our body, which increases its elasticity and helps the blood flow back from these to the heart. So we are in the cold Under the climatic conditions, the energy is more abundant. The increase of strength will inevitably produce good results, such as self-confidence and courage. More recognition of their superiority, the desire for revenge will be reduced. There is more advocate for self-security, and the industry is more cheerful. Straight, less suspicion and less intrigue.” Thus, the Vikings may have to thank the local cold climate, because it is this cold that makes them stronger. And this bitter cold climate has led to the scarcity of land that can be cultivated and developed by the local people. Therefore, the Nordic people have to struggle with the cruel nature in order to survive, and they have formed their strong and unyielding personality in the long run.
The Vikings lived in a group life at the time. Everyone had a sense of family glory and could make everything for the benefit of the family. The Vikings are generally divided into three classes: the first class is the prince, that is, the landlord, and their great aristocratic title is usually hereditary. The second class is the free man, who constitutes the main force of the army and the warrior. The lowest class is a slave. A free man becomes a slave if he loses all the land. Of course, the slave also has the opportunity to turn over the book. As long as he is loyal to the owner, he can still get the opportunity to become a free man. At the earliest time, the king was the most powerful aristocrat, and almost all major things were decided by him. In the later stages of development, the nobility should meet regularly with the free men and decide on major issues together. The Vikings must unconditionally obey all the decrees of the king and the assembly, and those who violate the law will be expelled from the tribe and live an exile. You can’t cultivate any land, you can’t accept anyone’s help, you can only hide in a cave and make a living by stealing. 
The Vikings are very focused on learning. For example, boys must learn farming, fighting, nautical techniques, and weapons production from an early age, while girls should learn to weave and cook. It is because of the Vikings’ enthusiasm for navigation and manufacturing that they gradually mastered a superb skill that made their sailing career even more powerful, that is, shipbuilding.
3. Vikings’ navigation mode
When it comes to the Vikings as a nautical model, the unique Viking warship is definitely an important part that cannot be ignored. For people in the coastal areas of Western Europe, the Vikings are absolutely a symbol of terror, and they may appear anywhere at any time. For the local residents, the murderous dragon head engraved on the high-pitched bow of the ship means looting and killing.
With the discovery of the ancient Viking ship, we have been able to understand how the Viking ship was built. Since Scandinavia’s edge is a fjord and surrounded by the sea, Vikings need stronger longboats to cross the ocean and take them further afield. The Vikings in the 13th century made unremitting efforts to build the first generation of long ships.
The first generation of long ships was more dexterous, but not strong enough. The Nordic craftsmen improved the technology from generation to generation, adding sails to the long ships to use the sea breeze to improve the speed and strength of the sail. In addition, in order to make the ship stronger and more stable, the craftsmen added towering masts and narrow keels. Viking ships have different shapes to suit different purposes, but they have several common characteristics: they can be used in shallow waters, can sail in shallow waters, and they travel very fast, are flexible, and are ideal for expeditions. Raid-style looting in different places. Often appearing quietly on the coast, rushing straight to the beach, the sailors on the boat shouted and rushed to the shore to plunder.
In order to move quickly in different navigation situations, the Viking ship is also equipped with many oars. Usually the warships of the Viking era were built long and narrow. A fully equipped Viking ship is very beautiful and spectacular. They are generally 70-100 feet long. They are beautifully carved on the high and curved front and rear masts. The bar is mounted on the mast in the center of the ship. Hanging a few rows of shields. As early as the end of the 8th century, ships became an important symbol of the Viking spirit, and they were the perfect embodiment of the Viking shipbuilders’ exquisite craftsmanship.
Because the Viking warship is shallow and fast, it has its advantages and disadvantages. The Viking warship is light and shallow, but its deck is open-air, so it can not play the role of wind and rain. Although the oil-impregnated leather is covered in some parts of the ship, in the case of the violent waves of the Atlantic Ocean, the effect of the small leather is minimal. The sailors wore fur clothes and huddled in a fur sleeping bag that could accommodate two people (also dipped in grease and water) to sleep on the deck. The wind and rain and the huge waves still made them cold and wet, and the dead and the night were swept by the waves. Death is a very common thing. It can be seen that the Vikings’ conquest of the sea must undoubtedly have the courage and firm willpower to endure great suffering before the victory. The term Vikings is from the strong derogatory meaning of the Middle Ages to today. The symbolic meaning of courage is also understandable.
4 The historical footprint and influence of the Vikings
In 5 AD, a Roman fleet sent by Caesar Augustus landed on Jutland, marking the main force of Europe and the immediate ancestors of the Vikings – the first among Scandinavian tribes. One contact. In the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire collapsed and the entire Western world shook. The Germanic tribes swarmed in and searched for trophies and fertile land on the European continent, causing a massive wave of immigration. During this period, savvy Scandinavians drove a small boat to engage in maritime trade. Gradually, the lucrative trade profits stimulated their natural wildness and adventurous nature, and with the breakthrough of Nordic shipbuilding technology, the looting and conquest of hearts gradually replaced the original simple trade contacts.
From 800 AD to 1100, many Nordic people drove their homes in advanced Viking warships, traversing the unknown waters and exploring the unknown world. Of course, some modern historians have also obtained another point of view: they do not think that the Vikings’ exploration at that time was aimless because, based on the trade exchanges of the past few centuries, the Vikings of later generations have compared Familiar with the coastal geography of Europe, so their offensive line is likely to have a detailed plan before departure.
These Nordic people are divided into several parts, some of which choose to sail north, cross the Baltic Sea, establish trade bases in the towns of Staraya Ladoga and Novgorod, and sail to Russia to Kiev. And Paula. Some fleets sailed to the Caspian Sea, and some Nordic merchants stayed in the area. The other part of the Nordic sailed southwest until it was in the heart of Europe. They swept the British peninsula like a tornado and captured Normandy, during which they even burned and plundered. Some Vikings also immigrated to the Orkney Islands, the Shetland Islands, the Faroe Islands and other places on their way to Iceland. Icelanders have established two immigration areas on Greenland. It is worth noting that there is a saying in the history of the world that, as early as 500 years before Columbus discovered the New World, the Vikings had already reached the coast of North America and had a short stay on Newfoundland. However, this argument has been controversial and still undecided.
Before 800 AD, the scope of Viking pirate attacks like this was limited to the coastal areas of Europe. Generally, only small teams were dispatched, and they quickly evacuated as soon as they seized property. But not long after, under the leadership of ambitious military leaders, a well-organized pirate fleet was born in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. A large number of Vikings began an organized, large-scale external expansion and colonization. . They invaded, kidnapped, attacked the city, burned and killed, and did nothing. But there are also many Viking pirates who camp on the land they occupy and live a new life. For example, in 885 AD, the Viking pirates of Denmark entered the Seine River and besieged Paris. Although they finally retreated because they could not attack Paris, they invaded a large number of French territories and settled in the coastal areas. Finally, they forced King Charles III in AD. In 911, he and the leader of the Vikings, Rolo, made him the duke, and placed the area around the Seine estuary under his rule, named Rolo. In the future, a large number of Vikings came to settle down. Slowly, this group of Vikings encroached through encroachment and eventually formed the Duke of Normandy. Later in the 11th century, Normandy was completely Frenchized and became a large feudal territory in France.
In addition to burning and killing, the Vikings have maintained trade relations with many areas. Archaeologists have also found many other products and coins from the Nordic tombs. But they seem to prefer silver more than gold. According to the Nordic Runestone, the Nordic merchants carry the balance with them and use the silver block as the weight. In 860 AD, the Vikings along the Volga River came to Russia. They traded with the local Slavs, from Novgorod south, along the river to Bologna, exchanged slaves for honey and fur; then along the Volga River into the Caspian Sea, switched to camels, and went to Baghdad, trading Silk and spices. Another trade route is to reach Kiev along the Dnieper River, into the Black Sea and to Istanbul. The Vikings sell fine jewellery there in exchange for local famous wines and silks.
In the 11th century AD, with the prevalence of Christianity in Europe, the Viking pirates settled on the European continent gradually began to be assimilated by the Christian world. The pirate era in Europe was finally silenced, and the Vikings’ power no longer had a horrible horror. Power. At the same time, the Nordic traditional religion, Nordicism, was slowly infiltrated and replaced by Christianity. The Vikings began to learn more about how to live like a true European.
In 1066, the Norwegian King died heroically. The last Viking leader who had fought in his life had also come to the end of his life. His death also marked the end of Viking pirates in the era of frenzied aggression in Europe. The heroic era of Viking pirates has never returned, but their legendary stories of bravery and good deeds will always be remembered by the world.
5. Reasons for Vikings to sail
The Vikings’ sudden invasion of other European countries is actually caused by many factors.
As is known to all, the Nordic region inhabited by the Vikings is covered with thick ice and snow all year round, and the winter is extremely cold and the living environment is extremely cruel. The land available for cultivation and grazing by the people is scarce and resources are scarce. In order to survive, local residents must fight with nature all the time. Therefore, they are hardworking and simple, and they have strong vitality, but they also develop a barbaric and brave character. It is precisely because of the lack of resources that the Vikings know how to make the most effective use of each limited resource, and never waste it. In the future, the Vikings will sail in the raging sea, explore the unknown world and find new ones. The place of residence, even in an extremely difficult and difficult environment, can live well, thanks to their culture and tradition.
Due to the tight resources of the Nordic countries, the population, land and other pressures of survival are very high. The countries and regions often struggle to seize resources. Therefore, in order to survive and develop, the Vikings are eager to explore the sea and trade with foreign countries. Finding new places to live, this inspires their natural adventure and exploration spirit.
6. Vikings’ beliefs and spiritual culture
The earliest Vikings believed in Nordicism. They believe that there is a supernatural existence in the world, and most of them are evil. To this end, they use amulets and religious movements to protect themselves. In the Viking era, many decorative objects with animal images also have symbolic meanings.
The cultural relics unearthed from the tomb also show the Vikings’ view of death. Everyone has a funeral and funerary. Some great men will have a funeral on board. The tomb of the deceased person will be placed on a ship with the items needed for long-distance navigation. The boat will be buried or burned.
Some important people will also be buried in stone vessels, that is, buried in the ground, surrounded by stones in the shape of a ship.
7. Evaluation of Vikings
Modern people’s impressions of the Vikings originated from the same period of art works and literary historical materials, and most of the chronological editors at that time were monks and pastors, many of whom were victims of Viking piracy. Therefore, these people’s evaluation of the Vikings may not be completely objective. From their descriptions we can infer that the Vikings are cruel, killing pagan images. However, according to the literary works of Icelanders in the 12th century, the Vikings are a group of romantic heroes, and their great achievements are a combination of ideals and reality.
Today’s rich archaeological research and findings can help us re-evaluate the Vikings and their civilizations. It can be said that the Vikings’ image is more complicated and balanced. They also integrate various roles such as nauticals, warriors, businessmen and successful colonists.