In 1939, the fascist alliance led by Germany, Japan and Italy ignited the war of the Second World War. This is the largest world war in the history of mankind. In 61 countries and regions, more than 2 billion people were involved. In the war, the military and civilians killed more than 90 million people, and more than 5 trillion US dollars were lost.
In World War II, the chief culprit of the war – Germany, in order to win the victory to develop the world’s most powerful thermal weapon – atomic bomb, after learning of this news, US President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the implementation of the “Manhattan Plan”, hoping to grab in Germany The atomic bomb was created before, so that the German war madman could not obtain such a weapon that would destroy the world. Later, the results proved that the atomic bomb was enough to destroy the world and it was not alarmist.
In 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. About 12.2 square kilometers of land in Hiroshima City was destroyed, buildings became irreparable ruins, and more than 36% of buildings in Nagasaki City were devastated. The destruction of the two atomic bombs instantly turned two modern industrial cities into ruins, killing more than 200,000 people.
But this is only the beginning. The explosive equivalent of Hiroshima’s atomic bomb (explosive equivalent is used to measure the power of the explosion of explosives, equivalent to the power of the same quality explosive TNT explosion) is 15,000 tons. Later developed nuclear weapons, their explosive equivalents are far Far more than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. In 1952, the explosion equivalent of a hydrogen bomb tested by the United States reached 10.4 million tons. In 1961, Russia test-exploded a hydrogen bomb with an explosion equivalent of 50 million tons, the tsar bomb, which is the volume that humans have detonated so far. It is the most powerful bomb in terms of weight and power. The hot air generated by the explosion can cause 3 levels of burns to people who are 170 kilometers away. The flash of the explosion can burn the eyes of people 220 kilometers away, and even cause cataracts and blindness.
After the Second World War, the world powers competed to develop nuclear weapons. The shadow of nuclear weapons has shrouded the world for half a century. Scientists have estimated that if the nuclear weapons of today’s world are jointly detonated, it can lead to many end of the world.
In order not to cause such a tragedy, hundreds of countries including the United States, China, Russia, and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and agreed to abide by the treaty on preventing nuclear proliferation, promoting nuclear disarmament, and promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to comply with the terms of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament, nuclear-weapon states need to periodically dismantle nuclear bombs that have already been built.
So how is the process of dismantling the “mystery” of nuclear bombs carried out?
How to dismantle the “Swiss watch” in the weapon
To disassemble a nuclear bomb, the engineer needs to know the exact order in which the components were assembled. Fortunately, the design process of the atomic bomb has been made public, and the way to design the atomic bomb is not changeable. The engineers have been familiar with the disassembly of the atomic bomb. The process of bomb disposal was demonstrated in military exercises.
In that exercise, the staff first transported the atomic bomb to the designated demolition factory. The demolition plant was constructed of reinforced concrete, which could withstand a powerful explosion and would not allow radioactive materials in the warhead to escape into the surrounding environment. The two engineers then used an electric screwdriver to open a compartment on the side of the atomic bomb, using a robotic arm to remove the “physical package” of the atomic bomb core component. The “physical bag” was loaded with radioactive material – uranium or thorium, which usually had oranges. It is as big as a small watermelon, weighing 4 to 11 kilograms, and is surrounded by conventional explosives to trigger a nuclear explosion. Use a special container to seal out the “physical package” and use the radioactive material tester to confirm that the “physical package” is in the container and transfer the “physical package” to the high-radioactive material shielding room. Before deciding its final destination, “physical” The package will be under 24-hour surveillance.
However, for the design of more sophisticated and more destructive hydrogen bombs, the dismantling work is not so easy. Hydrogen bombs come in many different designs, so disassembly is very difficult. From an engineer’s point of view, they are like a seamless, ingenious Swiss watch with an incredibly smart design. If it is not the original installation engineer of the hydrogen bomb, but other engineers who do not know the exact design sequence to dismantle the bomb, the error rate of disassembling the hydrogen bomb is higher than that of the atomic bomb. In the event of an error, the dismantler may be electrocuted or subjected to intense nuclear radiation. In the worst case, an accidental explosion may not be imagined.
Fortunately, dismantling your own nuclear weapons is not a problem for countries that know their nuclear weapons design. The US State Department issued a report saying that from 1967 to 2014, the United States had dismantled 85% of its open nuclear weapons reserves, and with the smooth progress of peace talks, Iran and North Korea also announced their plans to dismantle nuclear weapons. Peace is really good news.
Where is the waste bomb?
After the nuclear bomb is removed, what are the things to do with the remaining launch system, the pieces of the block, and the internal “physical package”?
The automatic control system of the nuclear bomb is highly automated and can be converted into a constant temperature system or water supply equipment for vegetable greenhouses. The platform and tower that launches the nuclear bomb, up to a dozen meters or even tens of meters, can be converted into a crane as a giant lifting equipment. As for the booster rocket, after the warhead was dismantled, it was fully used to launch satellites. The United States used the booster rocket of the Hercules ballistic nuclear bomb to launch the satellite.
The shell of a nuclear bomb uses a large amount of precious metals, which are generally the strongest metals that can be produced by the country’s technological capabilities. They are usually taken down for other fields, such as the manufacture of aircraft, submarines, and spacecraft shells.
The ending of the “physical package”
Other materials have found a place to go, and the fate of the most dangerous “physical package” in the bomb is difficult to choose. So far there is no best and most suitable treatment.
The first thing we think of is turning waste into treasure. The energy generated by using uranium or thorium as a nuclear fuel is supplied to production and life. However, uranium or plutonium in nuclear bombs cannot be directly burned to generate electricity because such high concentrations of uranium or plutonium are ignited. The energy is devastating. We must first convert the ruthenium into ruthenium oxide, and after special treatment, the uranium will become a low-concentration uranium, and it will be made into a combustion component and transported to the nuclear power plant as a fuel for the nuclear reactor to achieve the purpose of power generation.
This sounds very good. Unfortunately, the nuclear reactor itself uses nuclear fuel that is directly concentrated. It costs far less than the nuclear fuel that is removed from the nuclear bomb. Does anyone want to use more expensive energy? Before finding a cheaper way to turn waste into treasure, this treatment had to be put on hold.
Since it is not easy to use, then we will find all the uninhabited places to burn. The most inaccessible place on the earth is the depths of the desert. Pulling the nuclear bombs into the desert and concentrating them to detonate. This method is simple and rude once and for all. The most important thing is to save money. However, a limited number of okay, if there is more, the desert can not stand it. Nevada, in the north of Las Vegas, is the region with the most nuclear weapons in the world. It carried out 928 nuclear tests here. The result is that the land is directly blown up like the surface of the moon. Don’t think about it for hundreds of years. There is life again.
With so many nuclear weapons in the world, it is impossible to find so many places to burn all the nuclear bombs that have been decommissioned. If they can’t burn, they can only be buried. After solidifying the tantalum or uranium, it is packed into a high-density “dry storage tank” welded from steel. Each storage tank is wrapped in another steel shell, and the outer layer is covered with a thick layer of concrete. When standing outside these containers, no radiation is detected by the detector to complete.
But this is not a one-time project. The half-life of uranium is 4.5 billion years, and the half-life of sputum is 24,000 years. The people who live on the earth can’t wait for the day when their radiation disappears, then rebuild, maintain and monitor. The cost of these facilities will never decrease. We not only need to monitor and prevent illegal people from obtaining these dangerous goods, but also monitor and prevent the leakage of these nuclear wastes. In 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exploded in the Soviet Union. Nuclear fuel leaked, causing hundreds of thousands of people to suffer from cancer due to radiation. The land of 6,000 square kilometers was unusable, and more than 400 settlements became uninhabited areas. The painful lessons are still vivid. People have to be vigilant.
Compared with the above several treatment methods, the selection of partially disassembled nuclear bombs has become more and more popular in recent years. With the detonation device removed, the rest can’t be used as a bomb, and the internal nuclear material is in a stable and controlled state, which is the most cost-effective way. Even if the criminals want to reinstall the detonator, it will take several weeks. For such a long time, as long as we do the monitoring work, it should be possible to take preventive measures when monitoring the abnormal situation.
Nuclear weapons are currently the most powerful weapon in the world, and the dismantled bombs are also very dangerous. How to deal with them more reasonably is still a problem.