Eliminate the “behemoths” in the universe

  Is there a large structure in the universe because there are other universes outside the universe?
  An oversized void, nestled in countless galaxies; many quasars are clustered across billions of light years; many gamma-ray bursts form a circle that spans 6% of the observable universe The scope… As observing power increases, astronomers begin to identify many huge structures in the universe.
  But there is a problem here: they should not exist!
  Since Copernicus proposed the heliocentric theory, everyone realized that there is nothing special about the position of the earth in the universe. Later, astronomers also turned this idea into the principle of cosmology, that is, nowhere in the universe is very special. Of course, you can say that there is a solar system here, there is a Andromeda galaxy, but if you look at it from a large scale, the universe should be uniform, every place looks the same, there are no oversized voids, quasars. Group and other large structures. According to the latest observations, astronomers believe that the principles of cosmology apply to scales of about 1.2 billion light years and above.
  Although the principles of cosmology are still a hypothesis, they have been accepted by most astronomers. However, with the discovery of many large structures in the universe, the principles of cosmology seem to be untenable.
  Universe behemoth
  took the empty paper mentioned at the beginning, for example. This hollow is located in the sky area of ​​the southern hemisphere, about 3 billion light-years away from the Earth, but the diameter of this hollow is nearly 2 billion light-years. As a result, astronomers called this huge void a super hollow. However, the super hole is not completely empty. Observations show that the density of galaxies in it is about 30% less than in other regions. Some astronomers believe that supercavities may be associated with a huge cold spot in the cosmic microwave background. In this cold spot, the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation is slightly lower than other areas, and it looks like a hollow. But maybe there is no connection between them.
  Super holes are just one example of this. In 2012, British astronomers also discovered a structure that spans about 4 billion light-years, almost twice as large as a super-cavity. But this structure is not a hollow, but consists of 73 quasars that are grouped together. The quasar is an extremely energetic active galactic nucleus that is very far away from us. As early as the early 1980s, astronomers observed quasars. But it was the first time that many quasars were observed to get together. Astronomers call this structure a super large quasar group.
  In 2015, Hungarian astronomers discovered a ring structure consisting of nine gamma-ray bursts in an area about 7 billion light-years away. This gamma ray ring is huge, spanning 5.6 billion light years, and it accounts for about 6% of the entire observable universe. Gamma ray bursts are phenomena in which the intensity of gamma rays from somewhere in the sky suddenly increases and rapidly diminishes. Observations show that gamma-ray bursts occur almost daily, and where they occur are random. But many gamma-ray bursts make up a huge ring structure, which is too unusual. According to the principle of cosmology, the space of the universe is uniform, and such a large structure is obviously not in accordance with the principles of cosmology.
  In addition to these, there are many newly discovered large-scale structures of the universe (for details, see “Top Ten “Big Beasts” in the Universe” on the 2016.05A to 06A. These cosmic “behemoths” are the curse of modern cosmology, which makes it impossible to analyze the evolution of the universe with Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Because if the universe is not uniform, then analyzing the universe with Einstein’s equations becomes super troublesome.
  If the universe is a membrane sheets
  of many astronomers to find these very skeptical, and proposed many explanations, to maintain the cosmological principle. For example, some astronomers believe that some large structures may appear purely randomly.
  Lina Dick, a physicist from the University of Saskatchewan in Canada, has come up with a very different interpretation. He believes that the principles of cosmology are true, because these giants are not real – they are merely an illusion that the universe in other dimensions exerts on our universe.
  Dick’s proposal looks bold, but it is built on a solid theoretical work. First of all, it is nothing new to introduce other dimensions to solve the problem. For decades, many theorists have discovered that, given the existence of additional dimensions, they can easily combine the two most important theories of physics—general relativity and quantum mechanics. General relativity describes theories under great space and time, while quantum mechanics describes theories that are very small and empty. If they can be combined, they will produce a universal theory that can be universally applied.
  There are many candidate theories in the ultimate theory. A popular candidate theory is string theory, which considers particles to be composed of energy strings in vibration. It also believes that there are more dimensions in space, and the dimension should be 9-dimensional or 10-dimensional. We can only feel the 3-dimensional space because other spatial dimensions are tightened to a small scale and cannot be directly observed. Although string theory successfully combines general relativity with quantum mechanics, it lacks the support of experimental evidence. The main reason is that string theory cannot make any verifiable predictions.
  Dick is studying an extension theory in string theory called membrane theory. He believes that membrane theory can provide a verifiable prediction while solving the problem of cosmology.
  The basic content of membrane theory is that our universe is like a four-dimensional film, floating together with other similar membranes in a huge space with a higher dimension. This shows that the high dimensional space-time in the membrane theory is very large, and is not tightened to a small place like in the string theory. The other membranes correspond to other universes, but we are confined to our own membrane universe and cannot directly observe other membranes. However, membrane theory suggests that two adjacent membranes can overlap in some places, which has some observable effects.
  Crosstalk from film
  to film theory is understanding how to solve the problem of the cosmological principle, first of all we have to look at the method of measuring distant objects.
  We know that the universe is expanding, distant celestial bodies will be far away from us, and the farther we are, the faster we will retreat from us. In this way, the light produced by the celestial body will be elongated, and the spectral line in the spectrum will move toward the red end, and the farther the celestial body is, the more serious the redshift will be. The American astronomer Edwin Hubble first discovered this phenomenon, and in 1929 proposed Hubble’s law, thinking that the magnitude of the redshift from distant celestial bodies is proportional to their distance. Thus, astronomers can calculate the distance of the celestial body by measuring the redshift value of the celestial body.
  If astronomers see that many celestial bodies have the same redshift value, then they will think that these celestial bodies are roughly in the same area and can form a structure, such as a large quasar group or a gamma ray ring.
  Dick believes that if another film overlaps with our own film in some places, it will affect the redshift value we measured. In the overlap region of the film, the photons on one film are subjected to the force generated by the charged particles from the other film, which Dick calls the phenomenon of film crosstalk. After analysis, Dick found that this phenomenon changes the energy level of hydrogen atoms in the overlapping region. A photon is generated when an electron transitions from a high energy level to a low energy level, but if the film crosstalk reduces the energy difference between two adjacent energy levels, the resulting photons will be longer than the original wavelength.
  If membrane crosstalk is not considered, when astronomers observe celestial bodies in overlapping areas, the measured redshift value will be larger than the real one and will be mistaken for the area farther away from us. In this way, the overlapping areas will appear to be empty, while the latter areas will appear to be more crowded. These illusions may be regarded as some kind of big structure. Dick believes that super giant holes, super quasar clusters, gamma-ray bursts and other large structures of the universe may be caused by membrane crosstalk.
  Of course, everything is still inconclusive. Dick’s theory is just one of many explanations. But Dick’s theory has an advantage, that is, it can be verified by observation. For example, if you can find a place in the sky where there is a dense area adjacent to the open area, and then carefully check the redshift value of the celestial body there, you may find some clues.
  At present, the Apache Point Observatory in the United States is using a 2.5-meter-diameter astronomical telescope to conduct an observation project called “Sloan Digital Sky Survey”, which can measure the luminosity and red of millions of celestial bodies in 35% of the sky in detail. Move optical data. Dick is planning to search its database for redshift data that supports his theory. If he finds solid evidence, then this discovery will become the most important discovery in the history of astronomy. Because it not only solves the problem of cosmology, it also shows that our universe is not the only one.