Medical English Names from the Perspective of Etymology

According to the definition of the English name ancestor (Eponym) in the New English-Chinese Medical Dictionary, eponym is derived from the Greek epōnymos, which refers to a noun or phrase containing or formed from a person’s name [1]-[2]. The term ancestor in medical English terminology often refers to the terminology of anatomical structure, physiology and pathology, diagnosis and treatment methods, etc., which are composed of real or fictional characters. The fictional names are mainly from Greek and Roman mythology and near in Western literature. Modern and important literary works. Western literature plays an important role in the formation of medical terminology ancestors, and will continue to exert influence on the composition of new medical terms with the further development of medical science. The vocabulary of English medical terminology is large. Because of the different sources of root affixes, the phenomenon of “one word and three forms” often appears, which makes memory difficult for Chinese medical students. This article traces the etymology of the famous ancestral words in medical English terminology, aiming to help medical students better understand and memorize relevant medical vocabulary, and lay a good foundation for future medical research and clinical work.

In the evolution of Western medical experience from tradition to modernity, medical terminology reflects the advancement of ideas and culture in medical development. Hippocrates of Kos, the father of Western medicine, promoted ancient Greek medical reforms, founded medical schools, and separated medicine from philosophy and theology to become an independent discipline. At the same time, he first applied the Greek language to the expression of Western medical anatomy and physiology vocabulary, which made the medical terminology vocabulary simple and clear, and fixed expression [3]. The Galen of Pergamon in ancient Rome laid the foundation for the development of Western anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacy. At the same time, he translated a large number of medical classics into Latin, making Latin into the system of medical terminology and enriching medical vocabulary. The Renaissance brought the industrial revolution in Europe, and with the rapid development of European science and technology, Western medicine entered a new stage. With the emergence of numerous medical discoveries and inventions, new medical vocabulary has emerged, with medical vocabulary from Anglo-Saxon, French, Italian, and Spanish expanding medical terminology.

The famous ancestral words in the English medical terminology reflect the important role of Western literature in the formation and development of Western medical terms. Western civilization originated in Greece. Although the subject attributes of medicine and literature belong to science and humanities, both are brilliant flowers of ancient Greek civilization. There is an inseparable relationship between the two. From the perspective of etymology, medical English terminology mainly comes from the Greek Latin source, and the terms derived from Greek and Latin sources account for more than two-thirds of the total medical English terminology [4]. Ancient Greek and Roman mythology is the source of European literature. After the Renaissance, Italy, Britain, and French literature, as the spiritual treasures of Western civilization, continue to nourish modern medicine that focuses on human health. Throughout the ages, in the face of abstract, complex and ever-changing medical phenomena, the Western medical community has used a lot of Greek and Roman mythology or avatars in important literary works to name medical terminology.

1. Western medicine terminology ancestral words and Greek and Roman mythology

Greek and Roman mythology is both the source of Western literature and the birthplace of the emergence and expansion of medical terminology. The main body of Greek and Roman mythology is Greek mythology, which is basically the inheritance and adaptation of Greek mythology. In addition to the inconsistent names of characters in Roman mythology, the storyline and content are basically consistent with Greek mythology. Greek and Roman mythology is a collection of legends and stories about gods, heroes, and monsters. The names of the main mythical characters are found in the classic literary works of Homer’s Epic and Hesiod’s The Goddess. The Horse Epic is recognized as the earliest literary masterpiece in the history of European literature. The opening of the famous Hippocratic Oath mentions the oath to the Greek gods, among them Apollo, Asclepius, Hygieia and Panaceia are Greek myths. The name of the person in the middle. The social productivity of the ancient Greek era was low. At that time, people believed that the life and death of mortals were dominated by God. Doctors used medical techniques to save lives and wreckage. They used divine power and should swear to the gods and be supervised by God. Apollo is the main god of medicine of Olympus, the son of Zeus; Asclepius is the god of medicine, the son of Apollo; Xu Yuya and Panathuan are the two of Asclepius The daughters are the goddess of health and the goddess of the rule. In the medical terminology, the famous ancestral words with the name of the medical god as the etymology embody the worship and admiration of the ancient Greeks and Romans for the medical god. For example, the term hygienee is rooted in Hygieia, and the meaning of the word hygie is health; the term panacea is rooted in Panaceia, and the meaning of the word is panacea, a panacea. Ancient Greeks and Romans often used myths and legends to explain mysterious medical phenomena. They used a large number of names in ancient Greek and Roman mythology in the fields of anatomy, disease, diagnosis and treatment, and drugs. The following are the origins of Greek and Roman mythology. An example of a medical term vocabulary.

1.1 from the mythology of organ and organ names

The names of people who use Greek and Roman mythology in normal human anatomy are named according to the shape and location of the tissues and organs. For example, the atlas is also called the first cervical vertebra, which is located at the top of the spine and is connected to the occipital bone at the bottom of the skull to bear the weight of the entire head. The Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius (Visaly) named the atlas with atlas, from the story of Atlas. Atlas supported the Titan Protoss rebellion and was punished by the Olympian god Zeus to prop up the sky with his shoulders. His position of “top of the earth” and the structure and location of the vertebral body of the atlas were very similar [5]. Another example is the sphincter, which is a ring-shaped muscle distributed in the wall of certain lumens. It can shrink the opening of a lumen. The term sphincter is derived from the story of the sphinx Sphinx. It is said that the queen of Hera Paphos was sitting on the cliff road near the city, and asked the pedestrians who passed the road “the mystery of the Sphinx”. The pedestrians who could not answer the answer were crushed to death. The process by which Sphinx guards the intersection and squeezes the pedestrian is similar to the structure and function of the sphincter.

1.2 Diseases originating from mythology

In pathology, a pathological phenomenon or disease is often named by the image of a character in Greek and Roman mythology or a story. Umbilical varicose veins are one of the symptoms of hepatic portal hypertension, which is characterized by dilated and occluded umbilical veins and radiated from the navel in the abdomen. The term caput medusae is the Latin of “head of medusa”. Medusa is a snake-haired banshee in Greek and Roman mythology. Her hair has been turned into a viper by the goddess Athena, and her face has been turned into a green face and a sly face. From the pathological point of view, the perivascular vein that dilates and enlarges and radiates outside the umbilicus is very similar to the snake hair of Medusa. The English term narcissism of mental illness narcissism stems from the mythology of Narcissus. The beautiful young boy, Sissus, ruthlessly rejected the love of Echo Echo, making it sadly turned into a stone, and he also refused the show of other goddesses, revenge the goddess in revenge for the cruelty of Sisace, let him love The reflection in his own water, and finally died into a daffodil [6].

1.3 Originating from mythology, the means of diagnosis and treatment

Medical terms for medical treatment generally refer to the names of medical devices, testing methods, treatment methods, and the like. Medical devices are often named after the name of the device. The word syringe syringe comes from the story of the water god Synrix. Pan is a shepherd. He has a human body in the upper body and a sheep in the lower body. After Pan Yuxu was appointed to the squad, she continued to pursue her. The goddess fled to her sister and was turned into a reed to hide. Pan heard the sound of the wind blowing through the reeds, and took the seven pieces of reeds into a musical instrument.[7 ]. The sputum is hollow and shaped like a syringe. The famous ancestors of the diagnosis and treatment method commonly use the function of God to express the principle of diagnosis and treatment. For example, the root of the ultrasound “echo-” comes from the name of the Echo Echo, and the ultrasound works like Echo’s process of making echoes.

1.4 The name of the drug originating from mythology

The names of medicines originating from Greek and Roman mythology generally borrow the priesthood of the gods to express the traits of the drug. The analgesic morphine was first isolated from the poppy plants by the German chemist Friedrich Sertürner in the early 19th century and named after the dream god Morpheus. It is suggested that the drug has the effect of causing sleep and dreams. The chemical element mercury has been used as a therapeutic drug for syphilis in the history of Western medicine. The term name is derived from the name of the gods Mercury. In the mythology, Mercury is responsible for transmitting messages to the gods. He walks like a fly and can shuttle freely in the sky. Mercury is a liquid metal, and its free-flowing characteristics are similar to those of Mercury’s free walking [8].

2. Western medical terminology ancestral words and modern literary works

The Renaissance from the 14th to the 16th century was a movement of European thought and culture in response to the demands of the emerging European bourgeoisie. The further development of European capitalism has promoted the unprecedented prosperity of European science and art, and has also brought Western medicine into a new stage. After the Renaissance, Italy, Britain, France, Spain and other countries promoted the development of their own medicine because of the strength of their national strength. With the emergence of medical discoveries and inventions, medical vocabulary from Anglo-Saxon, French, Italian, and Spanish has entered the medical terminology system. Some of the classic literary works in these countries are vividly characterized by their characters. The storyline is deeply rooted in the human heart and is used by the medical community to name newly discovered diseases or pathological phenomena.

2.1 Syphilis

Syphilis is generally considered to be a sexually transmitted disease that was introduced to Europe at the end of the fifteenth century. It was said that the disease was originally brought back to Europe by soldiers and crew who followed Columbus to the New World of the Americas. The name of syphilis began to be nicknamed French disease, Italian disease, Spanish disease, etc. due to its inaccurate route of transmission. The final term is called syphilis. The term is derived from the famous Latin long poem Syphilis sive morbus gallicus, published by the Italian poet Girolamo Fracastoro (Francastro) in 1530. This poem describes the story of a young shepherd named Syphilis who was offended by the sun god Apollo and was framed by Apollo. The pathological symptoms described by the poet in detail are considered to be the earliest human description of syphilis [8].

2.2 Pickwickian syndrome

Pickwick syndrome, also known as obesity and hypoventilation syndrome, is a clinical syndrome of the respiratory and circulatory system caused by obesity, including obesity, lethargy, sleep-disordered breathing, excessive appetite, pulmonary hypertension, and erythrocytosis. And symptoms such as sable. The term name pickwickian syndrome is derived from the first novel, The Pickwick Papers, by the famous British novelist Charles Dickens. In the 54th chapter of the novel, the author has created a character named Joe. The boy continually eats a lot of food every day and can fall asleep at any time of the day. He has obesity in Pickwick syndrome. Typical symptoms such as lethargy and snoring [9].

2.3 Alice in Wonderland syndrome

Alice in Wonderland is a neuropsychological disease that affects the patient’s ability to perceive, mostly in childhood. The patient will feel the deformation of the object viewed in the visual perception, such as becoming larger, smaller, closer, farther, etc. The deformation of the visual size may also cause the sensory abnormality of other sensory organs of the body, which is often accompanied by migraine. Diseases such as brain tumors or epilepsy appear. British psychiatrist John Todd (Todd) published an article in the Journal of the Canadian Medical Association in 1955 detailing the condition and named it Alice in Wonderland syndrome. The term is derived from the children’s literature Alices Adventures in Wonderland published by British author CL Dodgson in 1865 under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll (Carol). The novel narrates that a little girl named Alice (Alice) has reduced her body to the size of a mouse after drinking a bottle of water at the entrance to the “Wonderland”. Later, after eating a piece of cake, she became a giant. In Wonderland, I met many strange people and animals, carried out many interesting adventures, and finally woke up and found that everything that happened was just a dream of myself. The storyline in which Alice’s body can become bigger and smaller is similar to the typical symptoms of the disease. Because Dodgson himself has a history of migraine, Todd speculates that the author has written his own migraine experience as a writing inspiration in the novel.

From the Hippocrates era to the present, medicine has always been concerned with human diseases and health. Western literature as a human spiritual civilization has been nourishing the development of medicine. The formation and development of medical English ancestors is literature and medicine. An important embodiment of the combination. Vocabulary learning in medical terms is crucial for medical students to learn medical English well, but learners are often plagued by the large number of vocabulary and the boring knowledge. If you can trace the etymology of the ancestral words, understand the background knowledge of terminology, and mobilize the learner’s literary knowledge to understand the meaning of the term, it will make the learning content lively and interesting, and the learning methods will be more diverse. The understanding of vocabulary is more accurate, and the memory of vocabulary is more effective.