The research results formed by James Gronig, a 15-year-old “excellent study of public relations and communication management” – a theory of excellence, known as “the dominant theoretical paradigm of public relations research after the 1980s” “. Since its inception, a large number of public relations scholars have conducted discussions, research, and localization tests, including of course continuing criticism and criticism. As a frontier research topic, is there any value in thinking about this theory? The answer is yes. The era of human beings entering the Internet environment is not long. Thinking about their laws can only be considered as a start. In the face of the characteristics of decentralization, interactivity, dialogue, and empowerment of the Internet, it will further confirm the forward-looking nature of the theory of excellence, or force it to undergo a new round of tests. This is indeed a very interesting topic.
Why is it still difficult to dominate the world for more than 30 years?
Theory of excellence can be understood as a set of theoretical results with systematic characteristics, including a series of middle-level theories, such as public theory, public relations and strategic management, public relations models, public relations assessment, employee communication, public relations roles, gender, Diversity, rights, activism, ethics and social responsibility, global public relations, etc. The core concept can be understood as three aspects: 1. “Strategic management” must be the core of public relations operations, that is, based on the public relations function model, public relations can provide objective, comprehensive and systematic advice to the management of the organization. It can even participate in decision-making; 2. When the organization establishes a long-term, good relationship with its strategic public, public relations can improve the effectiveness of the organization; 3. Whether it is a single-use two-way symmetric communication mode, or a two-way asymmetric communication The mixed use of models is superior to other communication modes in the establishment and maintenance of this benign relationship, namely the news agency mode and the public information mode.
The main question about this theory lies in: 1. Is peer-to-peer communication really effective? Most public relations practices seem to prove that the news agency model and the public information model are more effective; 2. Is only peer-to-peer communication ethical? Persuasion of corporate public relations practitioners for professional duties and work routines is a normal state; 3. Is there a single best model for public relations models? The complexity of the real world should emphasize more applicability principles.
So, is this the difference between the “should” public relations theory and the “real” public relations practice? Interestingly, in the history of the development of public relations, the predecessors with a practical background put forward a statement in favor of the theory of excellence: In 1906, Ivy Lee proposed the basics of “telling the truth” in the “Declaration of Principles”. in principle. He advocates that information should be provided to the public accurately and correctly. If an organization wants to obtain good reputation, it must tell the truth; if the disclosure of truth affects the organization, it should adjust the organization’s policies and behaviors according to the public’s reaction and evaluation. .
So indulging in the traditional media environment is bound to bring the inertia of unequal communication? In 1927, Arthur Page, the first vice president of corporate public relations hired by AT&T, pointed out that “the only effective way for leaders of big companies is that these business leaders must carefully observe the public. The state of thought activity, aware of the public’s emotions and the decisions the public may take, and then accept it voluntarily and sincerely. We must work hard to avoid being accused of offending and betraying the public interest. We should follow the public interest guidelines meticulously, even in They have not been officially notified or made before.”
So, do we have to recognize that there is a natural imbalance between the organization and the public? Edward’s core idea of Bernice’s public relations is “to invest in the public.” He believes that public-centered, understanding the public’s preferences, grasping the public’s attitude towards the organization’s expectations and requirements, and determining the public’s values should be the basic work of public relations; then publicity according to the wishes of the public, in order to be a good public Relationship work.
And if you are in the Internet field, whether the discussion of the theory of excellence will be clear or more confusing, we need to study further.
Does the Internet bring dawn or chaos?
It should be noted that in the context of the new era of communication, the role relationship between strong and vulnerable groups is undergoing mutual transformation under the influence of various factors. Information resources have a decisive role in many factors. The improvement of knowledge level and awareness of rights enhances the ability of vulnerable groups to acquire and produce information resources. The use of media has made vulnerable groups become information publishers. Individuals, in the emergency of the theme of maintaining consumer rights and interests, reflect the strong forces that were not available in the past.
The failure of Country Garden crisis management and other cases means that the news agency model and the public information model are strongly challenged. New media provides technical possibilities for equal rights, two-way public relations to replace control, and one-way public relations. Even the most basic soft-text creations are facing a change, and traditional ideas are becoming less and less applicable in the new media era. The contextual variation makes the typical application scenarios of soft texts from “common communication between experts and isolated individuals”. “A group of people ridicule experts” or “readers directly ignore the implant information of any unrelated brands”.
The arrival of the “post-truth” era indicates that it is necessary to accept the fact that the truth is built by the organization and the public. Although the audience is not a group of independent thinkers with sufficient information literacy and cognitive rationality, but is regarded as a decentralized, lazy self-thinking individual, the people have the ability to participate in the “shaping” of facts and change the past facts by the media elite. The unified expression of the construction of political elites, in a sense, is to give everyone the right to interpret the “facts”.
In the early stage of Xi’an Mercedes-Benz’s rights protection, the brand was extremely passive. The reason was that it was self-centered, and hoped to follow the brand’s rhythm, accept the brand’s late appeasement, and accept compensation according to the brand’s ideas. However, the result was out of control. The new media environment and the involvement of various factors finally staged the “victory of the people”, but behind it was still undercurrent, and the defenders once collapsed, which also confirmed the inherent strength of the organization. Subsequent cases of failed rights protection have also proved that the era of consumer and organizational reciprocity is still a luxury.
Some scholars have pointed out that because of the change in the relationship between the media and the broader definition of the media, the public will still be misled by the deliberately shaped image, and the manipulated actions such as irrational personal investment and participation in the exaggerated speech are worthwhile. Concern, that is, the rapid development of the network, while the public has more and more initiative, the “magic bullet theory” can still be seen in daily life.
Is public relations a tool or a construction?
The Minnesota sexual assault related to the founder of Jingdong Group Liu Qiangdong is still continuing to ferment. As early as the early days of the incident, Jingdong Group reacted quickly and issued a statement at the first time: Mr. Liu Qiangdong encountered a false accusation during his business activities in the United States. After investigation by the local police, he found no misconduct and he will continue his journey according to the original plan. . We will take the necessary legal action against false reporting or rumors. A hand holds the truth, and it is a gesture of peace.
But then Liu Qiangdong’s photo exposure during his detention made the company very passive. Then, three American law firms, Rosen, Schall and Pomerantz, announced on the official website that they would investigate whether Jingdong was suspected of misrepresenting the case of Liu Qiangdong, and thus the investors of Jingdong suffered. loss. The three law firms also invited investors with damaged investments to participate in investigations and possible class actions.
Not long ago, some key audio and video materials that may determine the nature of the event at that time appeared, but unlike the previous situation, there are a lot of traces of the content of the clips. The attempt of nature. Who is doing this series of actions? What kind of belief is behind it? It is nothing more than the leaders of the organization are the most capable, they can always control the situation, wisdom belongs to these elites, not the product of the free market. Moreover, the organization knows more than others. The public can only obtain certain benefits in cooperation with the organization, and even the public is manipulated for the benefit of the public. This is what Grunig said, they pursue an unequal worldview.
However, this move has not only failed to restore the negative impact, but has been questioned by the outside world for companies and even some professional media. This kind of practice is only satisfied with the self-interest of the enterprise or some people, and the actions taken that are not in line with professional ethics and cannot bear social responsibility will eventually prove to be ineffective actions.
In the face of crisis conflicts, the biggest difference between the two-way symmetric communication mode and the non-reciprocal communication mode is that the main purpose of the two-way symmetric communication mode is to enhance understanding. When the organization and the public fully communicate each other’s interests and positions, the conflicts between them will be easier to resolve and more likely to produce a benign interaction. The choice of which model is based on whether the real public is placed in an important position, and is really committed to building a long-term, good, and harmonious relationship between the organizational life system and the external ecosystem.
A apology letter from Haidilao has won widespread recognition from the outside world. It does not mean how much real feelings are reflected in the text, but also the willingness to make effective changes to win consumers. What really needs to be vigilant is that some enterprises have both the advantages of resources and the superiority of power. However, they do not put ordinary service targets and even the general public in their proper place. Therefore, they never recognize peers in their hearts. The concept of communication, depending on public relations as a tool, is arrogant and self-satisfied, and breaks through the bottom line for the purpose, but it is often successful. This should not be a case where the two-way symmetric communication model is considered unrealistic.
It is very normal for a theory of excellence to be unable to form a consensus at the moment. It is the ultimate goal to continuously improve the functions and social responsibilities of public relations through discussion and practice, and to pursue the creation of the best relationship between the organization and the public.