Personality has made you

Personal construction/cognition
George Kelly made this point in 1955. He believes that people’s behaviors and behaviors are related to the subjective ideas people use to explain the world: people’s constructs. For example, if a thing has four legs, a seat, and a back, you might call it a chair, because these features fit the “chair” category in your mind. This is the first theory to emphasize that one’s way of thinking is the root of personality, which is why many modern psychologists call it cognitive theory. Although Kelly’s ideas are well known today, when he first published these ideas, it did not attract much attention.

Over the years, psychologists who have studied personality have come up with an idea about how personality develops and how it affects one person. Since there was not much attention, some theoretical proponents used to have strong followers, but later fell out of favor. Take Sigmund Freud as an example. In the early 20th century, he believed that our subconscious mind drives who we are. His views inspired Alfred Adler and Carl Jung to form their own views. Although their contributions are important in the history of the field, modern personality psychologists tend to focus on other major theories. Here, we will introduce you to some of these theories, as well as some popular tests.

Social cognition
Albert Bandura and Walter Michel are important supporters of this theory. According to the theory of social cognition, we develop our personality through the interaction of our thoughts and the social environment. Unlike most other frameworks, social cognitive approaches are more interested in how we adjust our behavior in different contexts.

Based on traits
According to this school, we think, feel, and act at the same time and in different situations. These consistency are called characteristics. Today, theoretical testing based on personality traits is relatively easy to use and is therefore quite common. Several scholars of the 20th century made significant contributions, such as Gordon Allport, Raymond Cartel and Hans Eysenck, not just a founder.

Gordon Allport
Since the first point of view published in the 1920s, Allport has continued to perfect his theory. He emphasizes the importance of the individual, not the point that everyone agrees with a set of universal characteristics. For example, Allport tends to use a person’s in-depth case study to build a person’s personality file, rather than having someone take a standardized test. Although his work left a deep impression, he lacked data to support his theory, and like Rogers, he did not develop a measurement method to test his concept.

Raymond Cartel and Hans Eysenck
Like most other personality theorists, cartels largely believe in the existence of universal personality traits that apply to all. After some statistical work in the late 1940s, he defined 16 personality traits—such as conservative/extroverted, trust/suspicious, and relaxed/tensioned—that he considered to be the core of personality. Cartel believes that these traits are generally stable, but he acknowledges that people’s emotions and social roles also influence their behavior. Although his theory is more testable than other theories, the 16 variables constitute a complex analysis. Eysenck’s trait theory, which began to be published in 1947, overlaps with cartel’s theory, but there are several major differences. Most importantly, he simplifies some of the three main characteristics: introversion/extroversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Eysenck also believes that biology affects certain traits. For example, he believes that because of differences in the brain, introverts are more susceptible to mental stimulation than extroverts, so they avoid attending activities such as noisy gatherings that can overburden them. In general, although Eysenck’s theory is easier to verify than cartel’s theory, many psychologists believe that there are some unsuitable qualities in Eysenck’s theoretical framework.

Carl Rogers supported this theory in the mid-20th century. Unlike Freud, he believes that “our subjective experience – our phenomenological experience – our self-awareness” is the key to personality. Rogers believes that our behavior stems from the need to align our daily experience with the way we see ourselves. For example, if you think you are polite, then you may be polite. There is one major flaw in his theory: there are not many feasible scientific methods for measuring and testing these key concepts.

Five personality theories
Perhaps the most popular of the branches of personality psychology is the five major personalities, which evolved from research at the end of the 20th century. As you have guessed, it is not really attributed to any particular founder. Its center is characterized by five characteristics: openness, responsibility, extroversion, amenity and neurotic or emotional stability. The first letter of these five traits constitutes the word “OCEAN”, which is also known as the ocean of personality. Many personality psychologists agree with the five personality theories, which are the theory that combines the 16 root traits proposed by Cartel and the only three traits of Eysenck.

Repetitive testing is more than just an interesting way to kill online time. They can play an important role in many things, from determining who is suitable for the job to helping the therapist find a cure for their patient.

Rorschach Inkblot Test
The Rorschach Inkblot Test is the most famous projection personality test, a set of tests defined by their ambiguity: by presenting a standardized pattern of ink stains to the subject to stimulate the plate, allowing the subject to watch and speak freely. The things that are thus conceived are then classified and recorded by symbols, and analyzed to further diagnose the various characteristics of the subjects. In 1921, the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschau published 10 ink cards, which were developed through trial and error of inpatients. The answer consistent with the imprinted structure indicates mental health. The Rorschach test, also known as the ink stain map test, is now widely used in countries around the world.

Five personality survey questionnaires
McKale and Costa compiled the “Five Major Personality Factor Measurement Scales”. This is one of the most widely used and most direct personality tests. You simply evaluate your usual behavior, not what you think you will do in the future, or what you want. On the right is a simplified unofficial version of this test.

Personal construction theory test
George Kelly, founder of Personal Constructive/Cognitive Theory, developed this tool, often referred to as the representative test. This theory emphasizes the role of cognition in the formation and development of personality and values ​​the individual’s unique understanding of the world. The theory holds that people’s understanding of objective existence and personal experience and ideas are the main factors that influence the formation and development of personality. The test has two steps: first, list 20 to 30 people who play a specific role in your life, such as a mother or friend; the second part is the key to the test, the supervisor picks three people from the list and asks You describe how similar two people are and how different they are from the third person. According to Kelly’s theory, every trio should reveal a construct you construct, revealing how you see the world. Because of its openness, the test reveals twice as much information as the five surveys.

Subject sense test
Another projection test, the TAS is composed of a series of cards. The full set of tests has a total of 30 pictures of relatively blurred people. There are various kinds of blurred scenes on the card. Similar to the Rorschach Inkblot test, the key is to interpret the scene and describe what you think is happening. When the subject is telling a story, he will cast his thoughts and feelings on the hero in the picture. Murray’s approach is to analyze a series of “needs” and “pressures” from the story. He believes that the need to be able to derive pressure, and precisely because of the need and pressure to control people’s behavior, has affected the formation and development of personality. Therefore, through the subjective test, it can reflect a person’s personality characteristics. Clinical scientists also use this test results for pathological analysis.