Muscle fiber type
There are two types of muscle fibers, fast-shrinking and slow-shrinking, and each person mixes both types of muscles. Fast shrink fibers are used for short, powerful bursts that shrink quickly, but they quickly become fatigued; slow-shrinking fibers have more mitochondria—the source of energy that cells use to generate energy—so they are not so easy Fatigue is an ideal choice for long-term activities.
As you might expect, sprinters have more fast-shrinking fibers, while endurance athletes have more slow-shrinking fibers. Although some are hereditary, there is evidence that we can change the proportion of muscle fibers through training. For example, a slow run may increase the percentage of a person’s slow muscle fibers.
According to the famous theory published by Dennis Brambur and Daniel Lieberman in the 2004 issue of Nature, humans are born to run – and run far.
Lieberman, a human evolutionary biologist at Harvard University, said: “There are many (adaptive adjustments) that are not related to walking. They are just the result of adaptive adjustment.” The theory holds that early humans evolved these adaptive capabilities for tracking and chasing. Antelope until the animal falls due to fatigue and heat stroke. Winning a race means a rich dinner.
Keep cool: In addition to hairless, we have more sweat glands than most other mammals, which gives us an advantage over fluffy animals that have to stop to pant and cool down.
Big butt is more stable: big gluteus maximus – a big butt – is a unique feature of mankind. We have the least dependence on it when we walk, but it is essential to stabilize our body while running.
Elastic tendon: Our legs have long tendons, such as the Achilles tendon, which act like springs to help create strength and reduce energy consumption during running. And they don’t seem to offer much benefit for walking, which is another piece of evidence that our bodies make for running.
Fast factor: sprint
Everyone spends the same amount of time between each step, the same time each time you lift your legs and put them back, but the faster sprinters will push themselves farther during this time. Peter Waynd, a physiologist and biomechanist at Southern Methodist University in Texas, said: “The difference in speed actually depends on what is happening on the ground. People with fast speeds are more powerful when they touch the ground.”
He explained that excellent sprinters use their legs “essentially to slam to the ground.” They gained extra strength from their unique knee-lifting action: the higher the knee is lifted, the more space the leg has before the landing, so it will hit the ground with more force.
In order to sprint faster, Wayne proposed two things. First, try to get your back feet off the ground faster. When the current foot is landing, the hind leg knee should be flush with the ground knee; if it is still behind the knee, the front knee lift will be affected, thus weakening the impact. Second, try to keep your body still when you land. A good sprinter won’t shake anything—there are no left and right ankles, bent knees, or even head movements—so they won’t lose any power when they bounce back from the ground again.
Fast factor: long distance running
To run fast and run long, energy supply is the key. If you run faster than the energy your body can provide, you will get slower and slower. Wayne said: “Therefore, long-distance runners must master the game and not waste physical strength. The faster you can run with less energy, the better your situation.”
There are two ways to increase energy supply while maintaining fast running: either to produce more energy or to reduce consumption. Producing more means adding something called maximal oxygen uptake, the maximum amount of oxygen that you can absorb and convert into energy when you exercise. Wanting to have a high maximum oxygen uptake depends in part on genetic factors, but there are also training methods, especially for new runners. In order to improve this skill, you can carry out running interval training: after warming up, try to keep running for 3 to 5 minutes, then jog for 2 to 3 minutes to recover. Repeat about 5 times before jogging.
To reduce energy consumption, you need to increase efficiency or save energy. The method of reducing exercise is less realistic than the method of increasing maximal oxygen uptake, but Wayne said that the typical method of reducing exercise before large events—reducing mileage and speeding up the exercise—may be helpful. But Alex Hutchinson, author of Patience: The Limits of Flexibility in Spirit, Body, and Human Performance, says the best way is to run more. However, he admits that most amateur runners are tight and vulnerable. In this case, the lessons learned from a two-hour marathon attempt may help: optimizing nutrition, competition strategies, and even fancy shoes can help us do our best.
Overcome the problem and break the record
In December 2016, with a 2:02:57 World Marathon record, Nike announced a bold goal: to break the two-hour record.
The experts initially hesitated about this task. But in May 2017, the 2016 Olympic gold medalist marathon runner Elliott Kipgio, who came from Kenya, ran out of 2:00:25, only one second slower than expected.
The governing body of the campaign believes that Kipgioji did not create a world record because it did not meet the official record requirements. But physiologists are using this grade to design methods that allow students to cross the threshold in a documented course.
Hutchinson believes that there are several factors that helped Kip Georgy. Nike’s new shoe technology designed for the project may be shortened by one minute. He may have reduced it by stretching for a minute – by running behind others to reduce the resistance of the wind.
In the fall 2017 marathon, the players have adopted a training strategy. Nike’s new shoe Zoom Vaporfly Elite caused controversy. The company collaborated to fund the only published research on them. But Hutchinson believes the evidence is enough to show that they are “not just advertising.”
Weiyangde is also a member of similar project Sub-2, and he said that their job is not just to produce shoes and drawings. Scientists are also working to optimize the energy limits that runners extract from fuel. To break this obstacle, we need to improve the combination of many factors.
Under the combined effect of competition, reward and technology, humans will run faster and faster. “Track and field is a highly competitive professional event.” Wei Yangde explained, “There are a large number of athletes and the economic rewards are particularly rich. These incentives help to improve the performance. Not to mention those that also allow us to run faster. Fast new technology.”