Unravel the mystery of the disappearance of the mysterious Vikings.
There has been a legendary nation in the history of Northern Europe, that is, the Vikings. In the 8th-11th centuries AD, this period was called the “Viking Age” in Europe. The Vikings were the maritime hegemons earlier than the Japanese Empire. The Viking Pirate’s Dragon Boat Tomahawk had caused panic in Europe. Despite such a strong fighting power, the Vikings have only been glorious for centuries in European history, and they have disappeared into the torrent of history. Now, there are some new discoveries that may help us to solve the mystery of the disappearance of the Vikings.
When it comes to the Vikings, the first thing people think of is the “Viking Pirates”. They used their dragon boats and tomahawks to rob and plunder the wealth of other countries, creating centuries of terror in medieval Europe. But the Vikings are not just pirates. They also have many important identities, such as farmers, businessmen, colonists, navigators, and some of the earliest discoverers of the continent.
To this day, there are still many unsolved mysteries in the Vikings, and even the origin of the word “Viking” is unknown. In the 9th century AD, they were called “northern”, “Danish”, “Norwegian” or “infidel”, and the Anglo-Saxon people directly referred to them as “pirates.” The term “Vikings” was originally used to refer to people from the Vickers area, and was later used to refer to people from Scandinavia, now the Vikings in a broad sense. .
Vikings’ living environment
There are many fjords and islands on the coastline of the Nordic countries. The sea traffic conditions are very good, but the land is mountainous and horizontal, the traffic is inconvenient, the cultivated land is quite limited, and the crops and livestock are difficult to survive on such land. . Therefore, the Vikings have faced a series of survival tests since their birth. The population is expanding, resources are scarce, and the climate is bad. When limited cultivated land cannot support the growing population, they are heading for the road to expansion from the sea.
Scandinavia’s rich forest resources provided timber for the Vikings to build a large number of warships, on the basis of which they built the Vikings’ iconic sea warship, the leading ship. The faucet boat can reflect the Vikings’ superb shipbuilding technology in every detail. The bow is a wooden carved faucet, and the hull is also carved with a dragon totem as a decoration. This is because the dragon symbolizes courage in their culture. , strength and fear. The material of the keel keel is taken from the tall straight trunk. The middle part of the keel is curved to increase the bearing capacity. The ends of the keel are gradually narrowed, forming a streamlined passage to reduce the resistance of navigation in the water, so that a faucet ship can accommodate Forty or fifty people.
The leading ships designed by the Vikings have the characteristics of shallow draft and flexible steering, and were later used in a large number of Vikings’ overseas looting wars. The Vikings also gradually developed from the beginning to the beginning of conquest of the mainland and islands in order to obtain a broader living space. This large-scale operation not only opened the prelude to the Vikings conquering Europe, but also accelerated their assimilation process by other European countries.
The Vikings believed in the Nordic gods, who believed that the warrior who died in war could enter the Hall of the Spirit, where he drank with Odin. Driven by this belief, the Vikings were particularly brave and war-torn on the battlefield, without fear of death.
According to historical records, at the end of the 8th century, the Vikings launched an attack on the North Coast of England. The first choice they chose was a monastery. During the attack, the Vikings washed the entire church like a wolf, and also shaved off the altar of the church and took away all the treasures. After more than a decade of this small-scale plunder, the Vikings began large-scale operations and conquests. Their footprints spanned the continent of Europe and even reached North America and the Arctic.
Despite the Violent expedition, there is a violent side of burning, looting and looting, but they also have the development of commercial trade and the promotion of cultural exchanges and other peaceful activities in overseas expansion. It is undeniable that the Vikings made important contributions to the integration and development of European trade and culture at that time.
The Vikings are not a group of barbarians, they also have some good moral qualities. For example, they are generous and loyal to their peers, and they even respect women more than other people of their time. Moreover, the Vikings not only worship the warriors, but also respect the craftsmen. On their ships, weapons, farm tools and even livestock collars, they are carefully crafted with exquisite patterns. They not only regard these as tools, but they regard them as works of art. The Lewis pieces that are now in the British Museum are the works of the Vikings. These pieces are made of ivory carvings. The knives are precise, the lines are decorated with beauty, and the early Scandinavian traditional elements. It is perfectly integrated with the Roman elements, reflecting the Vikings’ fine art and superb tooth carving techniques.
Vikings on Greenland
Speaking of the Vikings, one cannot fail to mention the “red-haired Eric” who is famous in their history. He was also the first person to discover and name Greenland. In 982, Eric, who was called “red hair” with a red hair, was exiled from Iceland for murder. He found a continent on the way to the west and named it For “green land” (Greenland).
After returning to Iceland, he portrayed Greenland as a place with rich resources and beautiful bays, and successfully attracted 25 followers to settle in Greenland. In 986, Red Eric and the first immigrants from Iceland settled in the southern part of Greenland. After that, more settlers moved from Scandinavia, Viking on the island. People have formed two settlements, east and west, with a population of nearly 3,000 to 5,000.
In 1408, a wedding was held in the Church of Hevalese on Greenland. The wedding was the last record of the Vikings on the island. After that, the exchanges between Greenland and Europe were interrupted. The news came. Scientists on the island’s radiocarbon dating showed that by 1400, settlements in western Greenland were abandoned. In 1450, residents of the island’s eastern settlements also disappeared. The scientists concluded that the Viking immigrants on Greenland were eventually extinct between 1480 and 1500.
The mysterious disappearance of the Vikings
At present, there are many hypotheses about the disappearance of Vikings on Greenland. Most people believe that climate change is the most important factor leading to their disappearance. Gerald Diamond pointed out in the book “Crash: The Tomorrow of Human Society” that the five structural reasons why civil society is going to collapse are: 1. The impact of people on the environment. 2. Climate change. 3. Relationship with neighboring friends. 4. Relationship with the enemy. 5. Political, economic and cultural factors. The frameworks of these five social collapses are all applicable to Greenland, where the Vikings live.
Like other polar regions, Greenland has experienced many climate changes. When the Vikings first arrived in Greenland, it was in the middle of the medieval warm period. Until the arrival of the Little Ice Age in 1300 AD, the life of the Vikings on the island was in trouble. The cold weather and the short growing season have made the pasture supply for the livestock industry insufficient. The Vikings can only rely on preying on seals and fish for their livelihood, but they lack the technology. The southward movement of the ice floe also forced their trade with Europe to be interrupted, unable to obtain wood and iron from the outside world, and relied on resources that could be found locally.
According to scientists, the Vikings who were isolated from overseas should have a long and painful process of disappearing. Because archaeologists have found from the carbon-isotope analysis of the local Viking bones, when the Vikings first arrived on the island, only 20% of the food they eat was seafood, and by the time they were extinct, the proportion of seafood was as high as 80%. They concluded that cold and malnutrition are the two main reasons for the Vikings to ruin their lives.