In recent years, with the rapid development of China’s aviation industry, China is also showing the development achievements of China’s aviation industry to the world while building a strong aviation country. China’s aviation products are increasingly going global, serving the international community, especially exporting China’s affordable aviation products to aviation underdeveloped regions such as Africa and South America.
At present, China’s main export models include the Kitty Hawk 500 (LE-500), Yun 12, Xinzhou 60 (MA60), Yun 8 series and some models of helicopters. For small aircraft such as helicopters and helicopters, due to the limitations of the voyage and the complex international flight operation environment, it is generally dismantled and disassembled, and the container is transported by sea to the destination; for medium and small-sized and medium-sized aircraft, most of them are used for ferry. Fly (FERRY FLIGHT) / adjust the flight mode to the destination.
Some domestic aircraft are mainly designed for general aviation flight or short-distance transportation. The general design has a short range, the effective range is about 1000-2000 kilometers, the flight altitude is low, and the operation is more than 7000 meters. When the aircraft is flying, it will face many operational difficulties such as many stops, limited routes, and complicated flight environment.
Reasonable route planning and the choice of airport to stop are important, which can ensure flight safety and ensure the life and safety of the operating personnel. According to the model capability, during the planning of the previous route, it should fully consider the international relations between the selected route and the countries involved in the airport and the country, and try to choose stable diplomatic relations with China, good cooperative relations and foreign consulates or offices. Countries must avoid countries or regions where domestic political turmoil, war risk or war is taking place, and avoid areas or countries with high epidemics or major outbreaks.
Since domestically produced aircraft have not been operated in large quantities in the international arena, especially in the developed countries of aviation, some models have not yet obtained the airworthiness documents of the aviation developed international organizations. Therefore, before the flight adjustment and planning routes, it is sufficient. Consider the impact of airworthiness factors on subsequent actual operations.
After determining the route and stopping the airport, ensure that the necessary documentation is provided in accordance with the requirements of the corresponding national aviation authority. It usually involves the model documentation of the aircraft, performance data, flight objectives, random personnel and cargo lists. For the identity of the personnel, the requirements must also be fully considered and handled in advance.
For some unsatisfactory conditions, it is necessary to conduct effective communication and coordination through the agency, apply for exemption, and must implement the flight adjustment after clear approval to prevent unnecessary troubles caused by violation of relevant regulations of the relevant countries.
In addition, due to the large number of countries involved in long-distance international flight adjustment, long running time and complex operating environment, it may face the test of the natural environment such as plateau, cold, high temperature and high humidity, and test the reliability of aircraft operation. In order to ensure the normal implementation of the flight adjustment, the aircraft must be systematically inspected before the flight and the necessary test flight is carried out to ensure that the aircraft is in good airworthiness and resolutely eliminate the flight with the fault or hidden fault at the originating station to prevent the aircraft from being adjusted. A major failure occurred during the process.
At the same time, with the aircraft, some of the aviation spare parts and equipment with high failure rate are carried in order to meet the needs of the aircraft. For large equipment and spare parts for aircraft accidents, it is also necessary to reserve, and at the same time prepare the transportation plan and technical support personnel.
The international machine operation environment is complex and there are many difficulties. Even if a lot of preparations are done in the early stage, the operation will encounter unexpected situations and difficulties, so the whole team must keep a clear head and be ready to deal with possible Accidents, be fully prepared.
1. Flight preparation
The complex and unfamiliar international operating environment, the non-native language international language exchange and the use of English flight data will exert strong psychological pressure on crew members. In addition, the English language ability of the majority of domestic flight company flight personnel is relatively weak. In order to ensure safe and normal operation, land-to-air communication is carried out by flight translation during operation, which will also have an impact on the flight crew’s airborne environment perception. Therefore, pre-flight crew preparation and The coordination of flight translation must be sufficient and comprehensive. Flight preparation should be detailed and detailed, including familiarity with route data and routes around the selected route, important reporting points, alternate airport data, general frequency, alternate frequency and emergency frequency, adjacent area handover regulations and access to specific airspace. Restriction requirements, etc., airport entry and exit procedures, approach procedures and data, airport ground operation procedures and regulations, etc., involve normal procedures, regulations, and data to be memorized and properly used. Kind of aeronautical information.
Before the flight, the flight crew must prepare for the emergency handling procedures, especially the emergency preparedness of the aircraft failure and poor communication. Although each model has a corresponding manual for emergency procedures, in the international environment, in addition to the correct use of the emergency procedures manual, the psychological preparation for proper abnormal operation is particularly important. In the event of an abnormal situation, external assistance is very limited. The test crew is not only flying technology, but also requires strong psychological endurance. The more adequate the emergency preparedness in the early stage, the more quickly the unit can make a decision and dispose of it correctly.
2, maintenance preparation
The international flight is operated at a non-base airport. The airport may not be able to provide the necessary support facilities and equipment for the specific aircraft. Therefore, in actual operation, the random crew should fully consider the preparation of special equipment and the maintenance of the specific operating environment. Maintenance work, in advance to develop a detailed maintenance plan.
Mainly consider the special equipment for aircraft traction and maintenance and the preparation of special equipment required for aircraft operation. For some large-scale special equipment that cannot be carried randomly, it is necessary to formulate alternative solutions in advance to prevent the normal implementation of aircraft maintenance work and affect the adjustment. The flight is normal. Special equipment for specific models includes dedicated towbars, dedicated power interface cables, dedicated maintenance tools, and tooling, which are specified in the model manual. Before the general equipment is operated, it is necessary to consult with the relevant airport to ensure that it can be provided at the airport. This is one of the key factors to consider when choosing to stop at the airport.
As a mechanical product that integrates thousands of systems and components, aircraft failures in compliance with natural laws. In particular, the new factory aircraft, according to the bathtub curve principle, the probability of failure in the initial stage of operation is relatively high. Therefore, when the new factory aircraft is flying, the crew should formulate a troubleshooting plan. In addition to carrying some spare parts of the aircraft, the detailed troubleshooting plan is also very important. The plan needs to formulate the materials and equipment for the occasional major failure. Delivery plan and support plan for technicians.
3, operation control
In the long-distance international operation, there are many countries involved in the route, and the operation requirements of different countries are not the same. The planning application and approval procedures and the approval cycle are also different. Therefore, the application for the previous plan should be focused on. In actual operation, it is necessary to pay attention to the difference between the approved route and the applied route and the operational restrictions or requirements of the relevant countries in the approval, to prevent the flight route or altitude during actual operation, and to obtain approval documents or approval numbers for various approvals in order to check .
In order to ensure the safety and normal operation, the meteorological data and heading information before take-off should be timely acquired and carefully analyzed and researched, and the release standards should be strictly controlled to avoid returning to the unfamiliar airport during international operation. Due to the voyage of the aircraft, the timing of return or standby must be mastered to prevent emergencies with low fuel consumption.
In addition to the operational documents necessary to prepare for the flight, the operations personnel will also collate all other documents related to the flight, including various approval documents, random personnel and equipment lists, aircraft documents and performance documents, diplomatic information and related documents, Local policies and customs, copies of documents prepared by the government for specific requirements, etc., for inspection or emergency use.
Another point needs to be specially reminded that some aircraft’s large towbars cannot be randomly carried due to load restrictions or other reasons. When applying for a parking space at the airport, it is necessary to clarify the demand for self-sliding aircraft to prevent the launch of the aircraft. It is difficult to fly.
4, logistics support
In order to ensure the crew’s normal rest, it is necessary to choose the appropriate airport to stay overnight during international operation. When choosing an overnight airport, you should fully consider the local customs, the efficiency of airport customs, quarantine, the convenience of people on the ground, the safety of the hotel, and the convenience and sanitation of the necessary living places to prevent people from affecting health due to life problems and affecting normal flight. . When choosing a hotel in some outdated countries or regions, special attention should be paid to safety and hygiene. Convenient and comfortable living environment requires logistical support measures and preparations for the preparation of the plan. It is necessary to prepare adequately in the early stage and to respond appropriately when abnormal conditions occur.
Long-distance, multi-segment, long-term, cross-regional operations in complex international environments will inevitably encounter a variety of special operating environments, high altitude airport takeoff and landing, plateau or desert routes, long-distance transoceanic flights, etc. . In addition to the normal flight preparations of the previous period, special preparations for typical situations are also important.
1. The influence of unfamiliar language environment
The large-span international environment operates across different countries and involves many language environments. However, under the premise that the international language is English, there will be different English competencies, understanding and expression skills of non-native English-speaking countries. Different, it is bound to cause communication difficulties. In particular, land-to-air communications in flight time and space have a great threat to flight safety when encountering abnormal conditions, so it is necessary to formulate detailed flight plans and emergency response plans. Whenever you encounter special circumstances, try to reduce unnecessary calls, strictly implement the flight plan, and resume normal flight as soon as possible. Try to use a concise and clear language when communicating, and repeat and repeat the key instructions to ensure that the information sent and the instructions obtained are accurate.
2, the flight is not normal
There may be various irregularities during the flight of the aircraft. There are two types of situations that require special attention. One is the abnormal handling of the flight plan. During the flight during the flight adjustment, a certain flight segment may not be executed on time due to weather, aircraft failure or other reasons. The control personnel must make overall planning and plan in advance for the planned abnormal situation.
The impact on subsequent plans is also predicted for different delay reasons. For controllable flight delays, focus on the timeliness of follow-up plans: re-planning follow-up plans in advance for uncontrollable delays, and applying for backup plans to prevent major time losses after re-applying plans after the subsequent plans exceed the time limit.
Another abnormal situation is the emergency handling of aircraft failures or poor air communication during flight. It is imperative to make emergency plans and drills.
3. Special flight segment response
Here, “special flight segment” refers to a flight segment at a high altitude or a flight segment over a transatlantic ocean. The high-altitude segment should focus on the preparation of the cockpit pressure relief. The plan should consider the choice of the route alternate airport or the choice of the return decision point. The transoceanic flight segment should focus on the calculation of the return decision point. Due to the long-distance transoceanic flight, there is no alternative route to the alternate airport. The safety level of the ocean surface landing is high. In the case of non-special emergencies, it is generally possible to choose to return or fly to the destination with a fault. Therefore, in order to improve the safety margin, the transatlantic The return decision point must be determined before the flight.
The return decision point should be corrected according to meteorological conditions or actual fuel consumption after the aircraft takes off. In the event of an aircraft failure before the decision point, it is necessary to timely assess the safety risk, make decisive decisions, and prevent the best time to miss the return due to delays in decision-making. , affecting flight safety. The necessary life-saving equipment must be equipped on the aircraft during the transoceanic flight. The crew should also carry out water life-saving training and emergency drills to prepare for landing on the water.
With the development of China’s aviation industry, domestic airlines gradually step out of the country, and there will be more and more opportunities to operate abroad or conduct international flights, especially for long-distance international flights in Africa and South America. increase. Increasing foreign operating experience and adapting to the internationally complex operating environment will be of great help to operational safety and normal operation.