Cultivate national identity

Germany highlights “homeland”, the Ministry of the Interior has changed its name

According to a recent report issued by the German Federal Statistical Office, 208 million people in Germany have an immigrant background in 2018, of which 10.9 million have joined German nationality. Of these, 48% are due to family reasons, 19% find jobs in Germany, and 15% apply for refugee shelter.

“No matter what motivation to immigrate to Germany, the German government will start national identity education as soon as they enter Germany.” German social scholar Marcel told the Global Times that this is a social system project. In this project, Germany tries to teach less and do more practical things. The German government’s investment in all aspects can be understood as a kind of nationally recognized investment, which will pay off in a few years.

Germany has created a network of immigration services, the top of which is the Federal Immigration and Refugee Board of the Ministry of the Interior, and the cities of the states also have institutions such as the Aliens Authority. Immigrants coming to Germany are required to participate in classes that are integrated into the local community. Generally, after submitting an immigration or permanent residence application, the Alien Administration will notify the immigrants to participate in the course according to the specific circumstances. Wolfgang, head of the Berlin Foreigners’ Administration, told the Global Times that the “Integration Course” class usually includes 600 hours of language lessons and 60 hours of social and cultural lessons.

“After the course, students will also take a free final exam, and the passer will receive an ‘integration certificate.’” Wolfgang said the certificate can be used as a language proof of naturalization. In addition, there are hundreds of topics in the social and cultural class, such as some provisions of the German Constitution, equality between men and women. These questions are also part of the German citizenship test. However, Marcel said that the most important thing for shaping the national identity of immigrants is to allow them to enter the labor market both quickly and easily. “With a job, immigrants can live and work in peace, and naturally there will be social identity and national identity.” .

Hassan, 27, is currently a technical apprentice at an auto parts factory in Lower Saxony, Germany. He told the Global Times reporter that he had come to Germany for a few months when he was in the refugee camp in 2015. When he first came, he felt safe and free, but he was also confused. He thought that it was difficult for him to integrate into Germany. Germany is not his own “home.” Later, with the help of the local government, Hassan learned German for a year and then went to the company as an apprentice. Now, he has felt that he is “half German.”

According to the report of the Cologne Economic Research Institute in Germany, it is most difficult to shape the national identity of immigrants from the Middle East. Their German level is relatively low and their unemployment rate is high. This also shows the importance of German language training, social and cultural studies, and entering the labor market to shape the national identity of immigrants.

For historical reasons, Germany once avoided the issue of “national identity” and feared that this concept might return Germany to an extreme state. Words like “patriotism” have long been the “banned words” of the media. It was not until the reunification of Germany and Germany that Germany gradually strengthened its patriotic education. Today, German primary and secondary schools have incorporated “national identity” into their curriculum. First, starting with the Constitution and other content, let the children have a national outlook and values. Second, from kindergarten to elementary school, teachers will use common sense lessons to let children know the streets, rivers, monuments, etc. in their hometowns. In junior high school and high school, teachers will take students to travel around the country.

The German Sat1 TV station has a TV show called “I Love Germany”. Every week, celebrities and ordinary audiences are invited to participate in quiz activities on German knowledge, and they often create climaxes. Germany’s “Spiegel” weekly magazine, “Pictorial Newspaper” and so on also launched “Love Hometown” “on holiday in China” and other special issues.

The current German government also renamed the Ministry of the Interior “the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs, Construction and Homeland” and highlighted the concept of “homeland”. This renaming can immediately remind people of German beer, sausage, Rhine, the Alps and other cultural elements, showing that the German government wants the people to have a sense of national identity.

Marcel believes that national identity is not a slogan, but it must be continuously improved in a specific social environment through various trainings. It is the guarantee of social stability, national cohesion and economic development. ▲

The United States swears from the school’s allegiance to the Boy Scouts

For the 10-year-old Maryland student, Leo, attending the school’s allegiance oath in the morning is a must for him to go to school every day. Under the leadership of the teacher, the whole class faced the national flag and placed his right hand on the left chest. He read the oath: “I swear allegiance to the United States of America flag and the Republic represented by allegiance. The country under God cannot be divided, free and equal. enjoy”.

For the 15-year-old high school student Sara, she would rather use that time to organize her storage box or prepare for class. Sarah thinks that the oath is not very interesting. Some of her classmates who believe in other religions do not participate because there is a saying under “God” in the oath. Some states in the United States, including Hawaii and Iowa, do not require schools to take daily sworn activities.

Such incidents have led some conservatives in the United States to criticize that schools are lacking in patriotic education. This is also reminiscent of the refusal of the American football star to greet the flag in 2017, and was criticized by President Trump and some Republican supporters for “unpatriotic.”

There is no ideological and political education in Leo’s curriculum, but from the first grade, Leo’s school has a “social research” course, which is actually a basic national education, political and historical education, such as “Mayflower “The ship, the war of independence, the functions of the president and the government.” The school will also organize students to visit the former residence of the founding President of Washington, Mount Vernon, to explain the story of Washington leading the American people to “defech the British colonists.” “For more than four years, what I learned from school is that the United States is a great country. Only when it was a slave was the wrong thing.” Leo said.

Sarah said that when he entered high school, the history lesson was deeper. Some teachers would discuss the right and wrong of the war with the Indians. In addition, different states used different textbooks, which led to serious differences in the history and national education of American society.

But the differences are internal. According to some surveys, among the developed countries in Europe and America, Americans have the strongest sense of identity and pride in the motherland. This sense of identity was cultivated from an early age. Take the Boy Scouts as an example. It is one of the off-campus organizations that have a greater impact on American youth and is part of American national education. Founded in 1910, the Boy Scouts currently have more than 2.5 million members and 1 million adult waiters. The purpose of the Boy Scouts is to “teach patriotism, courage, self-reliance and other values.”

There are still many things that play a role in submarine. Half of the 10 national public holidays in the United States are related to patriotism. The “Presidential Day” in February was commemorated by Washington, DC, and Lincoln, the most respected Americans.

Independence Day, Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Martin Luther King Jr., and many other places named after the distinguished figures, the building reminds the Americans of their ancestors to struggle and build the country’s history.

American leaders have always used patriotism to attract supporters and unite people. Lincoln’s inaugural declaration is a famous speech to carry forward the American spirit. Kennedy’s “Don’t ask what the motherland did for you, but ask what you have done for the motherland” has become a patriotic saying. The current president, Trump, “does not give up,” whose mantra is “to make the United States great again.” On September 24, he spoke at the UN General Assembly and said: “The future belongs to the patriots.” In September last year, he also said at the UN General Assembly: “We accept the patriotic creed.” Of course, Trump’s mouth is “patriotic.” “There is a lot of controversy. ▲

Singaporean young people grow up with the letter of trust

Like most countries, Singapore celebrates national identity and love for the country through symbols such as national flags and national anthems that symbolize national identity. Taking the Chinese textbooks in primary schools as an example, not only the ritual knowledge of “Hanging the Flag” is taught, but also the philosophical little text “The National Flag of the Flag I Love You”: “I love you with the national flag, there is red and white and beautiful. Bend The five stars of the moon, see the national flag, and the national flag, I love you, red and white, beautiful. I want to become a little bird, fly to the sky to kiss you.” Singapore class standard on patriotism-related learning The results put forward clear requirements: to be proud of being Singaporeans, to be full of a sense of belonging to Singapore, and to be committed to nation building.

Patriotic education does not stop in books. In order to cultivate a new generation of “Singapore people”, the government has cultivated national awareness by emphasizing Singaporean characteristics, and stipulates that the flag-raising ceremony and the national anthem are sung every day from elementary school to high school. Ms. Li, who works in a think tank in Singapore, told the Global Times reporter that even the most naughty students looked serious during the flag-raising ceremony. “Maybe you think that every day, it will be in the form for a long time. But when you see that every student seriously participates in every part of the flag-raising ceremony and sees their sincere eyes, you will not doubt it.” ”

More importantly, all students will read the Singapore National Trust after singing the national anthem. This can be said to be a unique link in Singapore’s patriotic education. The letter of trust has always been a symbol of Singapore’s national identity and national spirit. The content is short and powerful: “We are Singapore citizens, vows to build a fair and equal democratic society, regardless of race, language, religion, and to achieve national happiness, Prosperity and progress, work together.” When reading, you must face the national flag, hold your right fist, and put it on the left side of your chest.

The letter of agreement is an agreement between the state and the people. The spirit embodied is that no matter what difference exists, each other is equal citizen. A Singaporean scholar told the Global Times that the letter was confirmed from independence in Singapore and has not changed since then. It has been read in schools, troops and important celebrations. For decades, Singaporeans have grown up thinking about it, and Internalization into a conscious of their patriotism.

When the reporter spoke to the Malay neighbors, she immediately recited it in English and Malay in her 60s. She said to some surprised reporters: “Every Singaporean can do it, no matter what ethnic group.”

Singapore is a special multi-ethnic country. Every National Day (August 9th), the Singapore flag can be seen flying. In particular, the rental houses of mixed ethnic groups were “occupied” by the flag at the end of June, and they were uniform. “Race harmony is a key part of Singapore’s national identity and an important part of national education,” a local Singaporean told the Global Times. ▲

French patriotic education, the country “first lesson of school”

In September, French primary and secondary school students ushered in the opening season. According to the new government regulations, all primary and secondary schools nationwide must display the French tricolor flag and the EU flag in the classroom, and also post part of the lyrics of the French national motto and the national anthem “Masaiqu” in the classroom. French Minister of Education Jean-Michel Blanche said that this is a necessary way to strengthen the “civil spirit” of students: “Whether in the world, knowing the symbol of the country is the most natural thing and the most important thing to ignore. Schools are places where students learn knowledge and develop their moral character. It is necessary to teach them to respect the national flag and national anthem and cultivate their patriotism.”

According to the “Global Times” reporters, in addition to the school, the patriotic education of French students is also in full swing in large and small museums. From Paris, known as the “City of the World Art Museum” to the remote towns and towns, each city in France has its own unique museum, which is an important source for students to understand history and enhance cultural identity.

The 36th European Heritage Day, which has just ended, is also bustling compared to previous years. There are 16,000 cultural heritages in the whole country that are free to the public on 21-22th of this month, and welcome tens of millions of visitors. In the Greater Paris area alone, 120 new places open to the public have been added this year. These cultural heritages carry the history of the French nation and nation and play a positive role in cultivating civic awareness and enhancing patriotic sentiment. In the “history of living”, in the art works that tell historical stories, the younger generation gradually cultivated a strong sense of patriotism.

In fact, the French patriotism is notorious in the world. This has historical reasons. During the centuries-old century-old war between Britain and France, the French began to form a patriotic complex as Joan of Arc was sent to the fire on the British. By the time of the French Revolution, the encirclement of other monarchies in Europe further strengthened the self-identification and patriotism of the French. There were a series of patriot clubs in Paris, far ahead of other European countries. In the 19th century Napoleonic III Empire, patriotism became one of the main contents of the French ideology.

After two world wars, Europeans began a comprehensive review of the negative effects of nationalism, but patriotism still has vitality. In April this year, in view of the rise of anti-immigration extremism and populist forces, French President Mark Long proposed the concept of “inclusive patriotism” to strengthen the patriotism of the French and the awareness of EU construction.

In terms of specific measures, in addition to continuing to emphasize the French tradition and highlighting the French cultural characteristics, Mark Long restored part of the concept of compulsory military service, allowing each young person to receive special military training and patriotic education. Every 16 to 18 year old must receive one month of military training, civic education and patriotic education. This is also a background for the French primary and secondary school classrooms to start hanging the national flag.

The French media believe that Mark Long intends to reinvigorate the spirit of patriotism in order to deal with the challenges of extremism, nationalism and related political parties. His emphasis on pluralism and strengthening the role of France and the EU in the international arena also requires the support of the spirit of domestic patriotism.