“On the road we have opened, countless motels have indicated that they are still available under neon lights, preparing for salesmen, fugitives, weak and weak people, family groups and the most sinister and energetic couple. Providing accommodation for men and women.” Russian-American writer Vladimir Nabokov wrote, “What kind of carnival you will see from a flawless road, what a strange lust!”
How was the road built?
In order to shorten, shorten, and shorten the time, they built urban roads and interstate highways, and they enjoyed flying. They are descendants of Europeans left on the New World. They are homesick, melancholy, and fearless and courageous. They are Americans.
In the face of the vast western territory, the Americans in the “Black Storm” seem to have found a new paradise: from the cold and humid state of Illinois in the middle east, along the Route 66 from east to west, until the California sunshine is in sight.
Since 1783, the United Kingdom has recognized 13 colonies of independence in North America until 1848, paying $15 million under the US-Mexico Treaty to obtain a total of 1.4 million square kilometers of territory in California and New Mexico. The United States has continued its centuries-old westward movement to cross the North American continent. The vast territory on both sides of the strait ended its climax.
In 1939, the new word “Futurama” released by General Motors at the World Expo in New York merged the holographic scene Panorama with the future Future, and hoped to see the Yantian Michi, the river, and the thousand-turn, the car through the small car. An unobstructed view of the unrealistic landscape of the US highway system in the 1960s.
Although in 1939, the United States had not yet formed political public opinion about the construction of a large-scale road network in a major town in a series of countries, but the political officials including Herbert Hoover, who was president of 1929-1932, were keenly aware. Volkswagen’s demand for motor vehicles and infrastructure construction will play a synergistic role in the country’s economic and military development.
Thomas McDonald, a propagandist who advocated the development of the highway, began to envision a more ambitious highway system after becoming the head of the US highway engineering. In December 1944, Roosevelt, the then president, signed the Federal Highway Construction Act, and the largest road construction project in the history of the US federal government began. However, the federal government’s grant for the construction of the interstate highway did not pass until 1956.
Therefore, during the 12 years from 1944 to 1956, although the federal government promised to allocate $450 million for the post-war road construction plan for three consecutive years after the end of World War II, the number of kilometers and coverage of urban and rural roads under construction continued to expand, The state government’s financial shortages and the allocation of construction funds are inconsistent. The cost of urban and rural roads is still low, and the quality of highways cannot match the interstate high-speed system officially built after 1956.
In 1956, in a effort by the Senator of Tennessee and the Louisiana Rep. to advance the highway legislation proposal, Congress and the President urged the US Highways Agency to build a new 41,000-mile highway system, the original interstate highway system. Also renamed “National Interstate and Defense Expressway System.”
From the 1920s to the end of the 1950s, it was the explosive growth period of American infrastructure. As of 2016, the total number of highways in the United States reached 6.663 million kilometers, and when the road construction movement came to an end in 1960, the United States already had 5.78 million kilometers of roads.
In the process, it was built in 1921 and developed into the Route 66 of the US highway trunk line in the mid-1940s. It carries far more historical and cultural implications than the expansion of the west, economic growth, and population migration.
Motel: Is it a stop or a destination?
Motel, the earliest vocabulary that was born in the United States, was portrayed to the extreme as a typical road landscape in the style of the road film and the writer of the “Beat Generation” representative Keruiyak.
The strangers must think that they are self-driving across the United States, because the motel is dotted with strange landscapes along the way, and the bay is vast, the desert is vast, the snow-capped mountains are far away, and the country towns are lonely and scattered. This is also Nabokov’s “Lolita”, Hitchcock’s “The Psychic”, Arthur Payne “Bonnie and Clyde” and Ridley Scott’s “The End of the Road” Communicate to readers and viewers.
But the tension between the motel and the road is hidden behind the literary and film paintings: the motel is in Yus, and it is also destroyed.
Motel is a mixed word for word formation, combined with motor vehicle motor and hotel hotel. The word Motel first appeared in 1925, but it was not yet defined. First seen in the western United States in the 1930s, the motel replaced farmhouses and open-air parking on both sides of the road.
World War II was the growth period of the motel. In the late 1940s, it was often side-by-side with family gas stations and private restaurants with franchises; from the early 1950s to the late 1960s, it was the gold of the motel construction industry for 20 years. In 1964, at its peak, there were approximately 61,000 motels in the United States.
In general, the motel’s architectural design is very avant-garde without loss of unity: strip-shaped single-storey or two-story conjoined small ocean buildings, sometimes see L-shaped and curved, extending along the direction of the road or vertical road; Each room has a separate eaves. To ensure the privacy of the guests, each room has an independent entrance. Passengers’ vehicles can be parked directly at the door of the room, so that when guests enter and leave the room, they can avoid unnecessary sights. In addition, the motel’s fascinating design is reflected in the open-air lounge area outside the room—usually a large, spacious yard with a swimming pool, wooden tables and chairs, and entertainment equipment for guests to enjoy.
In the 1960s, some motels evolved into motor inns and highway hotels. The architect designed the hotel into a multi-storey building with a unified main entrance, formal hall and built-in corridor. Even the swimming pool, recreation room and restaurant are separate indoor rooms. I don’t know if you remember, in the American drama “Bates Hostel” adapted from “The Psychic”, the proprietress’s personal cooking and food delivery services perfectly meet the dietary needs of the guests.
In terms of business model, most of the motel’s owners are local couples, so the motel, like the family restaurants seen along the way, is far from the chain of stores of large hotel brands, but mainly family business.
In the late 1960s, although it was difficult to distinguish between motels and general hotels by their appearance, the motel was still significantly different from the large leisure resorts. This is reflected in the purpose of serving the local conditions: the motel is aimed at passers-by who only want to stay for one night. The operators know that they should provide fast, hygienic and convenient services to ease the fatigue of the long journey.
It is the construction of the road that has caused a surge in the demand for travellers to stay in the night. When people find that distant scenic spots become readily available due to the improvement of road traffic, they are ready to go; but the road conditions and quality of urban and rural roads are far less than the interstate highways, congestion and time-consuming than expected, so The motel has almost become a necessary option for medium and long distance travelers.
After the state highway was officially opened to traffic, the company pursued a higher speed commute and travel mode; the original No. 66 national road lost part of the passenger flow, and a large number of motels faced the fate of going out of business, transferring and dismantling.
On the national road number 66, the number of motels still in existence has been reduced by more than half in terms of quantity in the 1960s. The survival mode of the old motels in the present, due to the different historical circumstances, has a multi-faceted functional division.
Russell Olsen gave the national road number 66 a “2,400-mile museum”. He also told us that many of the original hotels, cafes, restaurants and gas stations have been rebuilt as sites that have been removed and entered the history of the museum. Even Coral Court Motel itself has become a part of the museum. After 50 years, people recalled the resounding resounding of the prosperous scene.
Some other motels that are still open have been contracted by Indian immigrants and turned into “lovers’ hotels” (usually in the name of Patel, meaning “hoteliers in Hindi”), touching US law. The gray area of the bottom line stands shoulder to shoulder with the countries that have legalized the other two lover hotels in the world – Japan and Brazil. A country known as the melting pot of the nation allows such a little bit of sorrow, or as Oscar’s best director David Lynch said, “If the situation is too specific, the dream will stop.”
Motley road trip
According to statistics, more than 50% of Americans have stayed in motels since the end of World War II and the interstate highway system.
Although the researcher Mark Oakland has collected feedback on the motel for the heyday, recession and revival of the motel, the book No Vacancy is probably only to convey the bright side to the reader: the car The hotel is convenient and small. Although the room service is not intimate, the entertainment facilities are dilapidated, but it is an excellent parent-child travel stop, allowing children to watch TV and enjoy more scenery.
Is there any other travel experience in the plain and white, and the same experience as the Yelp Review Network? Road trips connect the passengers, motor vehicles, scenery along the way and the motel. The four are intertwined, and the tentacles expand to the eight sides until the “li” world of the sensual dog and horses lurking under the calm appearance world emerges.
Road trips often mean self-awareness for American youth in the 1960s and 1970s. Americans born in the baby boomers (1946-1964) had little memory of World War II. Under the loose social environment, there was a collision of various thoughts, a large number of cartoons, pop music and emerging religions in the 1960s and 1970s. Rise.
When the “hippie” trend carries the lives of alcohol, drugs, and rock into the streets, the protagonist of “Zen and Motorcycle Maintenance Art” witnesses the huge differences between individuals and the chaotic choices in the multicultural environment. The old son embarked on a journey of self-discovery. They traveled on motorcycles in the east, from Iowa, through Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Oregon. On the 17th night, they finally arrived in San Francisco Bay, California.
During the journey, the protagonist started from the attitude of different people in the face of motorcycle repair, from life experience to philosophical division, discussing the grand themes of human and material, civilization and technological progress, sensibility and conscience. In the end, in the San Francisco Bay, when the peers suspected that the protagonist was in schizophrenia, he had already gained the pure speculative pleasure. With the comfort of philosophical thought, he found an intricate representation of the technical civilization and deepened the inner conscience of the subject. Spiritual thoroughfare.
For most travellers, the motel is a gateway to Yellowstone Park and San Francisco Bay. The enthusiasm, the embarrassment, and the philosophical thoughts that ignited on the way, all approached with the end of the road, and came to an abrupt end when the end came.
“On the road” is fascinating because it allows people to temporarily escape from settlements. Anxious modern people who have been ravaged by the cosmopolitan life have been able to temporarily put down their “personal settings”, unload the burden, and face a rare “embarrassment” and “progress” in the journey of life, and do whatever they want.
But for the operators who stay in private hotels year after year, this is all their life. Not only is the station along the way, if the luck is not good, the motel will even become the end of life.
In 2016, the “Peeper Inn” by non-fiction writer Guy Talis was published. Talis received a manuscript from Foss in 1980. The manuscript details the various information that Foss himself peeked at in the attic of the cheap motel he operated. Foss opened a large hole in the ceiling of the attic, installed blinds, and sneaked into the sneak peek. He lived as a researcher and even combed the changes of American sexuality according to the “case” he glimpsed. set forth.
Flowserve even believes that his record is far more valuable than the study of Kinsey’s sexology, because the first-hand information he obtained is seen by his own eyes, and the observers have no knowledge of it. What’s more interesting is that Talis completed the book 30 years ago, but he decided not to publish the manuscript until 2013. The reason was that he himself was invited by Foss and spent three nights lying in the hotel. Peeping the privacy of the tenants in the attic! Talis knew that the move was against the law, so it was not until the prosecution period expired that he dared to make the manuscript with the store manager’s record and his personal experience public.
It is not difficult to imagine that the depiction of a fictional work on a motel may not be true. However, the reality is that contemporary young people are relishing the rumors of the notorious hotels, while holding a microscope and bowing their bodies, hoping to reveal the undercurrent of the “li” world by themselves, never been rumored by the elders. The cultural memory of the era.