On December 20, 1943, six days before Christmas, more than 100 houses in the Bulgarian capital Sophia were razed to the ground by allied bombs. The metropolis southeast of the Balkans was completely destroyed by the British and American allied bombings that lasted more than 100 days.
Letting Bulgaria taste the wrong team is the order of British Prime Minister Churchill himself. “If this medicine is effective, give them a little more taste.”
As the weakest member of Nazi Germany’s air defense, Bulgaria became the soft eggplant that the Allies first opened. Throughout the entire former Eastern European camp, Bulgaria, located in the southeast corner and bordering Turkey, is arguably the most inconspicuous role.
Bulgarian traditional wedding
Since the beginning of the 20th century, Bulgaria and Hungary, two European countries that have “staggered the team” in the two world wars, have no chance that their main ethnic groups believe that their ancestors came from the “Oriental.” These self-recognized “eastern westward” nationals were classified as “Eastern European camps” during the Cold War. It was not until the 1990s that they were able to step out of the Iron Curtain and join the European Union to become a well-deserved European country.
Hitler’s most reluctant ally
Europe in the 1940s was absolutely human purgatory for Jews. Where the Hitler and Axis powers go, are the magical caves where the Jews have no return. But within the sphere of Nazi empire, there was a place that became a safe haven for Jews. When the Jews in Europe were successively sent to the concentration camp by Hitler, Bulgaria, the Nazi squad, withstood the pressure of Germany to save the Jews in the country from death.
In fact, the Bulgarian Jews were only 11 hours old, and they would turn into black smoke in the incinerator just like the Jews in other countries. On March 10, 1943, a train departing from a German concentration camp entered Bulgaria. The Nazi authorities demanded that Bulgaria send all Jews to these trains directly into Auschwitz. Religious figures and some members of Congress, represented by Bulgarian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill, appealed to the public to stop the train from leaving. For a time, Sofia’s railway station was crowded with ordinary citizens who prevented the train from starting.
Large-scale demonstrations by the masses in the capital of the Nazis have only occurred once in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church put pressure on King Boris III at the time. The great priest Kirill even confessed that if the king gave the Jews to Nazi Germany, his “soul would be hard to redeem.” In the way of “atonement”, the church encouraged a large number of Bulgarian people to lie on the rails, so that the train could not move forward. Kirill’s great priest was also the first to lie on the rails in front of the train, so that a large number of believers followed.
In the Bulgarian parliament, even pro-Nazi members also opposed the sending of Jews to concentration camps. 11 hours later, the Bulgarian government explained to Nazi Germany that Bulgaria needs Jews to work as a labor force. In a very reluctant situation, Nazi Germany’s death train dragged empty cars back to the concentration camp. In this rescue operation, a total of 50,000 Bulgarian Jews escaped from the tiger’s mouth.
The fact that Bulgaria was tied to Nazi Germany’s chariots is a bit of a taste. After all, Bulgaria, where the geographical position is important, is a must for Hitler, and Bulgaria, which has been tempted by the coercion to join the Axis, has always been half-hearted about the Nazi capital.
In less than two years, Nazi Germany was defeated. After capturing Romania, he pointed to the Soviet Red Army in Bulgaria and stripped Bulgaria from the camp of the Axis without any resistance. Bulgaria, which was successfully “accepted” by the Soviet Union, is the satellite country closest to the big brother in the Eastern European camp. Until now, it is still the most pro-Russian Balkan country. In the center of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, stands the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. This is the only church outside Russia that specializes in commemorating the heroes of Russian medieval nationalities. The intimate relationship between the two countries is evident.
Oriental herders assimilated by Slav
In 1878, the Russian Empire was based on the “Pan-Slavic” foreign policy and assisted Bulgaria in independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgarian’s “big brother” complex with Russia has arisen. The Russians’ strong affection for Bulgaria lies in the Cyrillic alphabet used in the Eastern Slavic language, which originated in Bulgaria. Today, in Russia, the network information warfare against the West, many Bulgarian “keyboard man” has become the pioneer of online pro-Russian remarks.
But for the southern Slavic people, Bulgaria is a “outsider”. Today’s Bulgaria belongs to Thrace Province during the Roman Empire. In the 7th century, from the east coast of the Black Sea, a Turkic tribe belonging to the semi-nomadic nation, the Bulgarian, crossed the Volga River and continued to march westward, finally settled in Thrace.
The Bulgarians who believe in paganism, slowly spreading out of the Thracian province, pose a great threat to the Eastern Roman Empire. In a battle with the Eastern Roman Empire, the Bulgarians also slashed the Emperor Nikki Frus I of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the skull was used as a vessel for drinking by the Bulgarian leader. This historical period that swept the eastern part of the Balkans was also known as the “First Bulgarian Empire.”
However, the internal struggles of the Bulgarian tribes were also very bloody, killing each other and causing the balance of power to eventually tilt towards the Eastern Roman Empire. At that time, the Vatican Catholic Church and the Eastern Roman Orthodox Church tried to attract this tribe to its own civilized track. In 864 AD, under the strong military pressure of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Bulgarian leader Boris finally agreed to accept the Orthodox baptism. The family began the popularization of the Orthodox Church from the top down. In the process, there were also people who refused to enter the church to set fire to the newly built church to vent their anger.
Over time, the Bulgarians who were included in the Orthodox civilization track and married with the local Slavs, Thracians, Macedonians, etc., gradually formed the Bulgarian nation today. The Slavic culture bred in Bulgaria during this period has even become a source of many traditions in the Orthodox Church in the future.
The contest between two “Oriental Peoples”
The Bulgarians from the East faced the enemy in the Middle East in the Balkans. In addition to dealing with the Eastern Roman Empire in the south, they were to deal with the Serbs in the west and the Magyars in the north.
The so-called Magyars are the ancestors of the Hungarians. The Magyars, also from the East, crossed the plains of Eastern Europe and headed west, and settled in the Carpathian Mountains with the Bulgarians.
Hungarian Heroes Square
The true birthplace of the Magyars in Asia has always been a mystery. In the view of some Hungarians today (including the current Prime Minister Orban), the Magyars from the eastern grasslands are descendants of the Huns. However, some archaeological achievements show that the Magyars came to this land for a long time after the “Hungarian” country was destroyed. In the 5th century, the “Hungarians” who burned and looted on the border of the Roman Empire (the leader) Attila, and how much it is related to the mixed nomadic “Hun” that was defeated by the great man in the 2nd century BC, is also unclear.
Of course, because of the hostile relationship that was once conquered by the Ottoman Turks, Hungarian nationalists could not admit that they were closer to the historical Turks. In Hungary, there is even such a legend “deductive” their relationship with the Huns: the god of creation created two sons on the eastern grassland, one called Hunger and the other called Mag, both brothers are brave. hunter. One day, the two brothers saw a white-lighted elk, so they chased after them. At the edge of a lake, the white deer disappeared, but there were two beautiful women. The two brothers married one of them, and their descendants formed the Huns and the Magyars.
In any case, unlike the Slavic Bugarians, the Magyars have maintained the customs and habits of many Eastern nationalities, becoming the only nation in Europe with a surname in front and a name behind.
The Magyars, the Bulgarians, the Serbs and the Eastern Roman Empire, for the centuries before the 12th century, have been the four forces of the region, swaying each other until the Ottoman Iron Hood captured the Balkans.
Despite being religiously assimilated by the Eastern Roman Empire, the Bulgarians have always been in direct confrontation with this power; the Catholics of the Magyar are the weapon of the Eastern Roman Empire to attack the Bulgarians. Under the continuous attack of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Bulgarians who established the “First Bulgarian Empire” gradually weakened their defensive power in the north and were finally expelled from the middle reaches of the Danube by the Magyars.
As the Ottoman forces gradually infiltrated into Eastern Europe, the fate of the two Eastern peoples changed dramatically: the Bulgarians became subjects of the Ottoman rule, and the Magyars gradually became the object of the Catholic power of the Habsburg dynasty.
20th century loser Hungary
In 1848, the nationalist trend broke out in Europe, writing “Hungry is precious, love is higher; if it is free, both can be thrown” by the Hungarian poet Duo Duofei, becoming the Eastern European nation in pursuit of independence and freedom (anti-Habu The important announcement of the Fortress of the Kingdom.
However, for other ethnic groups in the Balkans, Hungary is definitely not a benchmark for freedom and independence. Hungary gained an increasingly strong position in the second half of the 19th century, and this did not help the liberation of other nations. Within the dual system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Hungary is directly responsible for the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian people in the empire. On the one hand, Hungary is a victim of imperialism, but when faced with a weaker nation, it has become a persecutor.
Entering Hungary in the 20th century, it can be said that it was a big mold: after the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was unloaded as a defeated country. The Croatian-controlled Croatia was incorporated into the Yugoslav kingdom. Slovakia announced its merger with the Czech Republic. The Transylvania region was placed under Romania and Vojvodina was included in Serbian territory. Hungary became a complete loser in the territorial changes of the 20th century.
German army entered Bulgaria during World War II
A huge Mazal site was reduced to a small country of Muir, leading to the current Hungarian border and a large number of Hungarian expatriates. Many Hungarians who have been scattered in Romania, Serbia and Croatia have become second-class citizens from the high-ranking masters, and have fulfilled the ups and downs of this nation in the past 100 years.
Zweig once wrote in “The World of Yesterday – A Memories of Europeans”: “Before 1914, the world belonged to everyone. Everyone thought where to go, how long they want to stay, no matter how long. Disagree, there is no permission to allow it.” Looking back at the changes in Eastern Europe’s past century’s borders and the alternation of sovereignty, perhaps Hungarians and Bulgarians can feel this geopolitical impermanence?