Not long ago, the new British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and his girlfriend stayed at Downing Street, causing heated discussion in the British media. Downing Street is located in the British capital of London, only more than two hundred meters long, but the British two top cabinet ministers – the official residence of the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Prime Minister’s official residence at 10 Downing Street, the Chancellor of the Treasury at 11 Downing Street next door.
Downing Street built by Downing
The name of Downing Street originated from George Downing, a British soldier and diplomat of the 17th century. He worked for Oliver Cromwell and King Charles II. During this period, he invested in real estate and obtained Considerable wealth. In 1654, he rented the land east of St. James Park, which was within walking distance of the parliament. Downing plans to build a row of townhouses for high-quality people, and he hopes to develop the land with the help of recent real estate development. The permit issued in 1682 stated that “Son Downing was authorized to build new and more houses to the west”. Between 1682 and 1684, Downing built a two-storey townhouse with a stable and a view of St. James Park. Downing asked the famous architect Christopher Rein to design his house. Although the building is large, it was quickly built and the cost was low.
Downing Street closed the passage to St. James Park, making the street quiet and private. In 1720, an advertisement described Downing Street as saying: “A very open place, especially at the upper end, where there are four to five very large, well-built houses suitable for prestigious and highly qualified people. The houses have a very good view and can see St. James Park.”
Those prime ministers who do not want to live on the 10th
No. 10 Tangning Street is a house in Downing Street. In 1732, a diplomat who had ownership of No. 10 Downing Street died and returned to the royal family. King George II of England sent No. 10 Downing Street to the stalwart Robert Walpole as a gift for his service to the country. Walpole did not accept this gift as a personal. After his proposal, the king agreed to give the 10th Downing Street to the First Minister of Finance (Walpole’s position) as the office. Walpole, as the first Chancellor of the Exchequer (the de facto prime minister), can live there, but once he leaves office, he must take the house to his post. In order to expand the residence, Walpole persuaded the guest of the next-door cabin, Mr. Chiken, to move to another house on Downing Street. The small house and the back house were later incorporated into 10 Downing Street. Walpole commissioned architect William Kent to turn them into a building that took three years to rebuild.
Walpole lived at 10 Downing Street until 1742. Although he lived there as the first Chancellor of the Exchequer, it took 21 years for his successor to choose to stay after he moved out. One of the reasons why many prime ministers did not live at 10 Downing Street was that they were basically nobles and had better housing and quality. For them, No. 10 Downing Street was not very good; another reason was that 10 Downing Street It is a “dangerous” place. It is built on soft soil and shallow foundations. It is easy to sink and often needs repair. In 1766, Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townsend pointed out that the house was worn out and was subsequently overhauled. However, Treasury officials complained that construction costs were too high to sustain, and some suggested that No. 10 Downing Street be razed to a flat and that a new house be built at the site or elsewhere.
Before the 20th century, few prime ministers liked to live at 10 Downing Street, Lord North (the prime minister from 1770 to 1782) and William Pitt (the third prime minister from the late 18th to early 19th centuries). Lord Northe lived happily with his family at 10 Downing Street for more than a decade. Little Pete lived for 20 years at 10 Downing Street, longer than any other prime minister. He often called No. 10 Downing Street “My Big House”. At 10 Downing Street, Little Pitt reduced national debt, formed a triangular alliance against France, and adopted the Joint Act to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Frederick John Robinson, Prime Minister from 1827 to 1828, invested heavily in the renovation of 10 Downing Street. Despite this, in the 70 years after the death of Little Pitt in 1806, 10 Downing Street was rarely used as a prime minister’s residence. From 1834 to 1877, 10 Downing Street was either idle or used only as an office and conference hall. No. 10 Downing Street has declined, surrounded by dilapidated buildings and dark alleys, full of crime and prostitution.
In 1902, Arthur Belfort became prime minister, and on the 10th of Downing Street, a new student was ushered in. He named No. 10 Downing Street as the official prime minister. Starting from Belfort, 10 Downing Street laid its image as the Prime Minister’s Office, and the black main entrance at 10 Downing Street was gradually becoming famous. During the Second World War, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill liked No. 10 Downing Street. He slept in the affiliated bunker at 10 Downing Street during the war. After the Second World War, with the development of society, the 10th Downing Street also had a major change. However, from 1974 to 1976, Prime Minister Harold Wilson of “Lovely Family” felt that 10 Downing Street was not a real home. He actually lived in the home of Lord North Street. In order to avoid controversy, he was at 10 Downing Street. Work, hold meetings and entertain guests. Tony Blair (the prime minister from 1997 to 2007) spent most of his term in the more spacious Downing Street, 11 to accommodate his extended family.
There are also No. 9, No. 11, No. 14, No. 18…
11 Downing Street is the official residence of the British Chancellor of the Exchequer. It is located on the left side of 10 Downing Street. The first finance minister was Henry Petty Fitz Morris, who moved in 1806. However, in recent years, many prime ministers have liked to live in the more spacious 11 Downing Street, instead of their No. 10 official residence: Blair became the larger living area at 11 Downing Street after he became prime minister in 1997; Deng Brown succeeded the Prime Minister. He first chose to enter the 11th Downing Street, and soon moved to No. 10; David Cameron moved to No. 11 Downing Street instead of No. 10 in 2010, and in early August 2011, The Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne saw the Prime Minister live on the 11th and he had to move into the 10th.
The Prime Minister’s office at 10 Downing Street has been extended to 12 Downing Street, which is now used to house the Prime Minister’s Press Office and the Strategic Communications Department. In history, No. 12 Downing Street was the office of the ruling party whip, and now the party whip office moved to No. 9 Downing Street. In 1881, William Yurt Gladstone excused himself as the Prime Minister and Minister of Finance to let his family occupy 10, 11 and 12 Downing Street. In addition, No. 14, No. 15, No. 16, No. 18 and No. 20 of Downing Street are office buildings of some government departments.