Many elderly fracture patients, especially women, usually do not fall or have been traumatized. There is no sign of it. It is because of the inexplicable pain and discomfort to go to the hospital for examination, but the fracture is found, and the patients and their families are very surprised. In fact, there is a special type of fracture in the middle-aged and elderly population, which has a high incidence and is often referred to as a fragility fracture.
As the name suggests, fragility fractures refer to fractures caused by bones becoming brittle, and the cause of embrittlement is caused by osteoporosis, so it is also called osteoporotic fracture. Unlike fractures caused by trauma, such fractures are often caused by no trauma or minor trauma. Sometimes, the external force of the body is greater, which can lead to fractures. For example, some elderly people only sneeze and ribs Fractures or thoracic vertebral fractures, some just bumps when riding a car, there will also be a thoracolumbar spine fracture, even when the lower steps or twist the body can also occur fractures, it can be said that it is impossible to prevent.
Why women are more likely to happen
According to a statistics from the International Osteoporosis Foundation, more than 50% of women will experience initial osteoporotic fractures after 50 years of age, and the risk of re-fracture of female osteoporotic vertebral fractures is that no vertebral fractures occur. 4 times.
Women are high-risk people with osteoporosis, especially with age, women’s ovarian function declines, estrogen secretion is reduced, and estrogen can promote calcium absorption, prevent osteoporosis, so women after the menopause, the occurrence of brittle fracture The risk will increase. In addition, women with thinner body shape are less prone to osteoporosis due to less adipose tissue and lower estrogen levels. After the occurrence of brittle fracture, prolonged bed rest will lead to rapid loss of bone mass, aggravation of osteoporosis, resulting in a vicious circle, resulting in slow fracture healing, long recovery time, and the risk of re-fracture in the same site and other parts. Significantly increased.
Early warning symptoms appear in women after osteoporosis. The first obvious symptom is pain, which is mainly caused by pain in the whole body. Then there will be pain in the lower back and leg. Finally, the pain is located at the waist, especially after exercise. Secondly, the body shape becomes short and hunched, and symptoms of general malaise often occur. In addition, because of chronic calcium deficiency, sweating often occurs, and you will feel tired after walking or exercising slightly. Be wary of such symptoms.
Fragile fractures are common in four parts
Thoracic and lumbar vertebral body: The thoracolumbar vertebral body on the spine is easy to fracture, also known as vertebral compression fracture, because it is squashed. When the spine is subjected to external force, there may be multiple external forces acting together, such as acting on the chest. External forces of the lumbar spine, including compression, buckling shear, stretching, etc., thereby causing damage to the spine.
Wrist joints: Fractures in the wrist are more common. Most patients are caused by the palm of their hand after falling. Some patients only support themselves by hand. For example, sitting up from the sofa will cause a fracture. Such fractures are even more numerous than fractures of the lower back, often occurring 2 cm proximal to the distal end of the humerus.
Hip joint: The hip joint is very stressed, because the weight of the whole body is transmitted to the knee joint through the hip joint, up to the foot, which is the most concentrated place when the body rotates. Moreover, the range of motion of the hip joint is larger than that of the knee joint, and it is also the most prone to brittle fracture.
Shoulder joint: The shoulder joint is composed of the scapula and the tibia. The tibia is weak and is the part that is prone to osteoporosis. After fracture in this part, due to poor bone condition, it often leads to difficulty in reduction and fixation, especially comminuted fracture, which may result in humeral head necrosis, shoulder dislocation or subluxation, which seriously affects joint function.
Prevention of osteoporosis is important
Preventing and delaying the onset of osteoporosis is fundamental to preventing the occurrence of fragility fractures.
From the beginning of young and middle-aged, we must pay attention to reasonable dietary nutrition, and eat more foods with high calcium and phosphorus, such as fish, shrimp, milk or dairy products, eggs, beans, miscellaneous grains, green leafy vegetables and so on. Do not smoke, do not drink alcohol, drink less coffee, strong tea and carbonated drinks, eat less sugar and salt. Adhere to outdoor physical exercise, especially the right amount of weight-bearing exercise, and more sunbathing. Exercise strengthens the muscles and bones and works with a reasonable diet to delay the onset of osteoporosis.
After menopause, women can supplement calcium and vitamin D under the guidance of a doctor. If necessary, bone resorption inhibitors such as bisphosphonates, calcitonins, and bone-promoting drugs can be used. Medical treatment must be carried out under the guidance of a doctor, and unreasonable medication effects are often counterproductive. It should be noted that osteoporosis may also be secondary to other diseases, such as thyroid disease, myeloproliferative diseases, nutritional deficiencies, connective tissue diseases, congenital diseases, etc., such patients should first treat the primary disease .
In addition, the elderly should regularly check bone mineral density. The bone density test is an effective method for diagnosing osteoporosis and assessing the risk of fracture. Because osteoporosis can usually be found silently until a fracture occurs, early diagnosis is important.