So far, those of us who have made movies and TV shows have been waiting for talents to come to us. We have the key to the kingdom in our hands. Anyone who wants the audience to see their work must come to us with the work. But now, this situation has begun to change, and the speed of change is very fast.
– Kevin Speysey, James McTorgott Memorial Lecture 2013, The Guardian Edinburgh National Television Festival
Writers, musicians, and actors all need to look at the faces of several large entertainment companies to survive. In order to get the funds and professional production teams necessary to create a work, the only way to get the scarce propaganda and distribution channels necessary to distribute their work to the audience is to work with several large publishers, record companies and film companies. signing the contract. However, as Kevin Speyer said, such a situation is now rapidly changing, and the reasons for these changes are as follows.
First, since the cost of producing entertainment works has dropped to a very low level, the general public can now produce professional-quality entertainment products at their own expense. For many types of entertainment, artists no longer need expensive equipment to support their creations. For example, the Academy Award-winning documentary “Miss Miss 6: The Salvation of Me” (TheLadyinNumber6) was taken by photographer Kelan Klein using a Canon 5DMarkIII camera. One such camera is on Amazon.com. Only a few thousand dollars are sold. Many of the major films released, including the 2010 and 2011 Academy Awards Best Editing Awards, were produced using a video editing software called Final Cut Pro, which is priced at only 300. Dollar.
Documentary short film “Woman No. 6: Music Saves Me”
Second, the cost of professional production facilities has also dropped significantly, so many artists now have the ability to rent professional-looking production facilities. On the YouTube site, any creator with more than 5,000 subscribers can join the YouTube site’s partnership program and use a production facility called YouTube Space. This production facility is available in Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo, London, Berlin, Mumbai, and São Paulo, where creators on YouTube can use professional-quality production and editing equipment, and they can also participate in makeup, design, and photography. Training course.
Third, it has become easier to hire freelance creative talents to advance and complete creative projects. The romantic novelist Barbara Furich has published several of her out-of-print novels in an international way. In the process of publishing these novels, Barbara Furisch did not turn to the staff of the publishing company, but used the Elance website. On the Elance website, people can easily find freelancers who offer a variety of professional services. Barbara Furich employs freelance translators and editors on this site, through which they translate their novels into German. Text, Spanish and French.
In addition to the production process, some creators also try to use a variety of technical means to crowd out the creative process of the work. Nerosh Mishra, known as the “Flower Magician of the Indian Broadcasting Industry”, used crowdsourcing to make his own radio show , The Idiot Box of Memories. The Memory Idiot Box program has 42 million listeners in India, and recently the channel for this show has been extended to Facebook and YouTube. The “Memory Idiot Box” program is broadcasted on 5 working days a week, and its main content is a 15-20 minute story about the daily life of Indians. It takes a year to find ideas for more than 200 stories, which is obviously a very difficult task. So where does Nilesh Mishra look for these stories on the show? Of course it is looking for from his audience. Niles Mishra has funded a variety of writer clubs across India. Members of these clubs will write thousands of stories for him and read them to him, Nilesh Rice Sla will pick the best story from his broadcast on his radio show.
New technological changes have also made it easier for the general public to access a variety of sales platforms, such as Apple’s iBooks Store, Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing Project (book publishing project), Band Camp, Pledge Music, Amazon. Website’s Artist Central (music publishing project) and YouTube’s partner project (video content publishing project). The flexibility of digital distribution technology allows creators to break away from the traditional patterns of recording, film, television, and book creation. For example, Oliver Braudy’s memoir, The Saints, tells the story of traveling with a Gandhi souvenir collector. The book’s number is about 28,000 words. It’s too long to be published in magazines. Too short. However, this work, which is difficult to occupy in the traditional book publishing market, has achieved good sales on Amazon’s Kindle platform.
In addition, in terms of financing, creators are also facing more and more opportunities. In 2012, in order to raise funds for the publication of The Icarus Deception, Seth Godin launched a crowdfunding campaign on the Kick starter website. In less than four hours, he received $40,000 in funding, and the entire crowdfunding project received a total of $280,000. A year later, on the Kick starter website, the creative team of the TV series “Veronica Mars” raised $2 million in less than 10 hours. The crowdfunding project raised The total amount of funds reached 5.7 million US dollars. Previously, the “Veronica Mars” drama failed to obtain the fourth quarter renewal rights from the two Internet TV stations UPN and CW, and the production team of the drama used the above crowdfunding funds to create a dimension. The extended version of Ronika Mars.
For the entertainment industry, what exactly does all of the above changes mean? To better answer this question, let’s first discuss what these changes don’t mean. First of all, these changes do not mean that film companies, publishers, and record companies no longer have value. These large entertainment companies will continue to provide artists with support in production facilities and expertise, and they will continue to provide artists with the funds and distribution channels needed to promote their work. However, despite this, we still have reason to believe that these changes have already threatened the long-held market power and profit share of large entertainment companies, because in the production and distribution of entertainment works, more and more DIY (do it yourself) The elements will change the relationship between these large entertainment companies and artists, consumers, existing business partners, and publishers, which will reduce the impact of these large entertainment companies. In the remainder of this chapter, we will discuss the relationship between large entertainment companies and the above four groups. First of all, we are talking about the relationship between large entertainment companies and artists. Now, with the help of new technologies, artists have many new opportunities to create and promote their work to their audiences, so they don’t necessarily need the help of these entertainment industry “goalkeepers”.
If you and your friends have the talent for songwriting and improvisational comedy creation, and you want to create a series of fantasy musicals with the theme of two important historical figures, what are you going to do? If your interest is in creating romantic vampire novels and you want your work to be read by young readers, what are you going to do? And if you have some unique insights into the design of dance moves and hip-hop violin music, how do you prepare the public to get to know your insights? Not long ago, unless you were a well-known entertainer, it was almost impossible for you to have the opportunity to persuade the entertainment industry’s “goalkeepers” to accept your ideas, and it is impossible to bring your ideas to the audience. However, today, the probability of achieving these dreams has greatly increased. In fact, the situations we have described above are based on success stories in the real world.
Let us first talk about the story of Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist. They created a form of entertainment for “musicians’ duel” and set off a network of musicians’ confrontation. The collaboration between the two began in the late 1990s, when Lloyd Equist recruited Peter Shakov into his impromptu comedy team “improvisation mission.” The “Improving Mission” comedy group mainly toured the major campuses and small comedy clubs. One of the regular projects they performed was to invite the audience to randomly select two historical figures, and then the performers performed an impromptu rap show between the two. In 2009, Peter Shakov had already owned his own YouTube comedy channel, and he believed that the “Improving Mission” comedy rap performance was very suitable for pre-recorded production, because he and Lloyd Equus You can spend more time researching characters, designing stage interactions and adding more complex, professional sound effects and visual effects. Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist decided to put this idea on the market.
So, how do they do it specifically? The first thing they need to consider is the source of funding. In the late 1990s, producing professional video programs required the rental of specialized equipment and very expensive production facilities. However, by 2009, every smartphone user had a ready-made, high-resolution video footage in their pocket, and professional video editing and audio production software was available for a few hundred dollars. Therefore, Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist produced the first three videos in their series with a budget of only $50.
Similarly, in 2009, new technologies have introduced new distribution channels for the entertainment industry, so Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist do not need to push their ideas into the 30-minute standard. During the broadcast of the TV series, there is no need to sell their ideas to the administrative staff of the TV station. Users can upload videos of almost any length on the YouTube website created in 2005. So where does the expertise and creative support in production come from? Peter Shakov found some instructional videos about video production on the YouTube website, and he watched these videos to improve his video production capabilities. In terms of creative support, Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist did not hire a team of writers, but instead sought out relevant ideas from viewers who subscribed to their YouTube channel. When one of the fans suggested that they perform a showdown between John Lennon and Bill O’Reilly, the entertainment form of “Epic-level rap showdown” was officially born.
In the first “Epic-level rap showdown”, Shakov (the stage name “Friendly Peter”) played Lennon, and Equist (festival name “Epic Lloyd”) played O’Reilly. The show aired on Shakespeare’s YouTube channel on September 26, 2010, and successfully won 150,000 clicks in the first two weeks alone. At the end of the performance, the actor threw out such a slogan: “Who won? Who is the next matchup? It’s up to you! ” So, all kinds of ideas flew like snowflakes, “Epic rap The good word-of-mouth made the second video they produced (Dass Vader’s performance of Adolf Hitler in November 2010) received 1 million hits in the first five days of the release. The popularity of the YouTube channel in Shakov and Equist has increased significantly. By 2015, the “Epic Rap Showdown” launched the fourth season, and 50 exciting matchups attracted a total of 1.7 billion viewers. Their “Epic Rap Showdown” channel on YouTube has 12.2 million subscribers and is the 16th most popular channel on the YouTube site. In addition to the YouTube platform, all of their “epic-rated rap showdowns” are also sold in the iTunes store. 10 of these “epic-level rap showdowns” (including Darth Vader vs. Adolf Hitler, Mario Bros. vs. Wright Brothers, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, and Barack Obama vs. Mitt) Romney was even awarded the Golden Record Award by the Recording Industry Association of America. Next, let’s talk about the story of Amanda Hawking, who has published a series of romantic vampire novels at his own expense and fame and fortune. Amanda Hawking grew up in Austin. As a teenager, she was a prolific author of supernatural novels for young readers. However, by the age of 25, Amanda Hawking’s efforts did not bring anything to her except for the unpublished novels and the rejection of a large traditional publishing company.
In addition to the vampire novels, Amanda Hawking also loves Jimmy Henson’s puppet show “The Adventures of Mobbit”, which is the beginning of her series of interesting experiences. In April 2010, Amanda Hawking heard that the performance of The Adventures of Mobility will be held in November. However, at the time she worked in a nursing home for disabled people, her salary was only $18,000 a year. This meager income barely maintains her daily life, but the cost of flying from Austin to Chicago to watch the “Mobit Adventures” performance has far exceeded her financial ability. In order to watch the performance, Amanda urgently needs to raise $300 for tolls and accommodation, so she decided to put her novel on the Amazon website for sale. At the time, Amanda thought that in the next six months, she would be able to raise $300 in travel through Amazon’s self-publishing platform. As it turns out, Amanda’s idea is not wrong at all. In the first six months of her novel upload to the Amazon platform, Amanda has raised $20,000, and in the next 14 months she has earned an additional $2.5 million by selling books.
In addition to Amanda Hawking, Lindsay Sterling also has a similar story to share with us. She became famous as a dance hip-hop violinist through the Internet.
What is a hip-hop violinist? What is the dance hip hop violinist? In an interview with the Washington Post, Lindsay said: “I went to the drafting agency for an audition. I went to find a variety of agents, but no one understood the idea in my mind. They went over and over again. Tell me that this kind of thing has no market value at all. “In another interview, Lindsay said: “They told me that you don’t want to touch this kind of thing. ” In 2007, Lindsay relied on part-time work. Working income earns her college tuition, and when she finds (in her own words) that she wants to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars in her career in the music industry, she is frustrated. So Lindsay decided to try to put a piece of her own music video on the YouTube site. As a result, she now has nearly 7 million subscribers, and her YouTube channel has received more than 1 billion total clicks. 20 So far, Lindsay has released two albums. The two albums have stayed on the “Billboard” list for 127 weeks, with the highest rankings reaching 23rd and 2nd respectively. In 2015, Lindsay completed the world tour of 55 cities and left behind in the famous venues such as the Red Rock Theater and the Central Park Summer Stage.
From the above stories, we can clearly see that the changes facing the entertainment industry are very obvious and very important. More and more artists can bypass large entertainment companies and directly reach out to their audience. After success through self-marketing, these artists gained greater bargaining power when signing contracts with large entertainment companies. Without a network of platforms, such negotiating power is simply unthinkable. Faced with these new choices, many independent artists choose to remain independent. They no longer accept bundled services from major film companies, record companies and publishers, preferring to choose a single service that suits their needs.
For example, Peter Shakov and Lloyd Equist, as mentioned above, are currently working with a studio studio that specializes in digital short films. They said that the reason why they chose Mark Studio instead of cooperating with large film companies was artistic considerations. Equist said: “The philosophy of Mark Studio is that in our current era and environment, in the YouTube market, personal creativity must be pure and unique. Mark Studio provides us with a variety of We need the structure, resources and support, but they don’t help us edit the content of the video. ”
The artist Lindsay Sterling, which we mentioned above, did not choose to sign a contract with a major record company, but chose to sign it under the license of Lady Gaga’s agent, Troy Carter. Troy Carter encouraged Lindsay to continue to publish on the YouTube site as an independent artist. Carter said: “She has received more attention on YouTube than she can get on radio or TV shows, we hope to The way to guide other artists guides Lindsay’s career path, and we hope she will continue to be an independent artist. “In addition, Carter also said that she plans to introduce a private publisher “to promote the sale of physical goods.” Carter’s remarks show us a very important fact that distribution channels that were once considered to be completely controlled by large companies are now a common commodity that can be purchased independently in the eyes of Carter and others.
Of course, not every artist will choose to stick to the path of independent artists. Many artists who debut as independent artists will choose to leave independence at an appropriate time and sign contracts with major music companies, film companies or publishers. However, a new problem facing large entertainment companies is that when these independent artists decide to leave the state of independence, they have more choices in their hands, so they have more negotiations in negotiations with large entertainment companies. Chips. In fact, in April 2011, it was this negotiating power that allowed Amanda Hawking to start a bidding war with several major publishing companies. According to reports, the English distribution rights of the four forthcoming novels of Amanda Hawking ended up with a bid price of more than $2 million. For a new author who refused to publish a book a year ago, and only one shoe box from the major publishers, this is really a low price. Many of the refusals in this shoebox are from publishers who are currently competing for Amanda’s work.
So far, we have only talked about how these new choices affect new artists who have just debuted. In fact, these technological changes have also given artists who have become famous more choices. As a result, these well-known artists have also gained higher bargaining power in negotiations with large entertainment companies, and they have the same opportunities as new artists to completely bypass large entertainment companies. For example, after the contract with EMI in 2003 expired, the radio head band decided not to renew the contract with EMI. Tom York, the lead singer of the radio head band, said: “We really like the people of EMI, but now that we have reached this moment, the singers will ask ourselves why we need a record company? ” In 2007, the radio band Launched their own album “In Rainbows”, which was released in an independent manner and distributed the album content directly to fans via the band’s official website Radiohead.com. Instead of taking a traditional fixed price of $10 to $15 per album, the album gives fans the freedom to decide what they are willing to pay for the record. Fans can choose to download the album at no cost, or they can pay for the album at whatever price they think is appropriate. As a result, the radio head band found that fans were quite generous and that the decision to get rid of the middlemen brought many benefits to themselves. In a discussion organized by Wired magazine, Tom York told David Brian: “From the income figures, our album’s profit exceeds the total profit of all previous radio head albums. . ”
In 2011, comedian Louis CK also discovered the enormous power of direct distribution through experiments. In a blog post by Louis CK, the experiment was described as follows: “I launched a new talk show special show and set the price very low (as long as $5). I try to ensure that the audience can It’s very easy to buy, download, and watch this show without any restrictions. How much money can a person earn in this way? The answer is that in the first 12 days, Louis CK earned $1 million. Excluding video production and website development costs (about $250,000), the remaining net profit is about $750,000. Of this $750,000, Louis CK paid $250,000 to him. Employees, as a “bright bonus”, donated $280,000 to various charities, and he kept the remaining $220,000. After that, Louis CK also launched on his website. another three comedy show. Although the January 2015 issue of the “comedy store live show” (Live at the Comedy store) program and did not get so much as the 2011 show off media But only four days after the release of the program, Louis • CK says: “This program sales than any other program in the four days of sales are good. ”
However, to say that the Queen of the publishing industry, it is still necessary to count JK Rowling. Through negotiations with publishers, JK Rowling retains all rights to the electronic version of all Harry Potter series. Under such an agreement, JK Rowling founded the website Pottermore.com. The website Pottermore.com is an online store and the only online seller of the Harry Potter eBook. Even Amazon, the giant that controls 90% of e-book sales, has to bow in front of Queen JK Rowling. When a consumer wants to buy a Harry Potter e-book on Amazon.com, Amazon links the customer search to Pottermore.com and draws a commission from the site’s sales. This form of website direct sales allows JK Rowling to maintain direct contact with consumers, which also helps to increase fan engagement and build user loyalty. Pottermore.com has launched more than 18,000 words of Harry Potter content that has never been published. In JK Rowling’s own words, this setting makes Harry Potter and his world “can exist in one.” A unique medium, and when I started to create this book, this medium did not exist at all.” (We can’t help but share with readers a very ironic and interesting story: Amazon, which is committed to reshaping the entire book publishing industry, has let major publishers bow down, who can think of a company that one day has to The author of the single-handed horse bowed his head. Amazon had to allow JK Rowling to maintain direct control of the reader. For such a situation, Philip Jones commented on the Guardian: “The word ‘schadenfre’ is not enough to describe my mood. . “)
Of course, not all successful artists use the above methods to directly engage with consumers. However, even if these successful artists do not do so, the existence of these new choices will allow them to have more chips when negotiating with large entertainment companies, which will inevitably lead to lower profits for large entertainment companies. For large entertainment companies, such a change is obviously a hassle because, as we pointed out in Chapter 2 of this book, the profit model of the entertainment industry relies on the huge profits of a few successful artists to subsidize those who do not. Too famous artists bring risks to the company.
Technological change has not only changed the relationship between large entertainment companies and artists (and the profit margins in this relationship), but also changed the relationship between large entertainment companies and consumers. With the help of new technological changes, there are now many new forms of entertainment consumption available to consumers.
Many people in the entertainment industry have expressed their contempt for self-produced entertainment content. They believe that these self-produced entertainment contents have no way to compete with professionally produced entertainment content in quality, and amateur materials are written at their own expense. Hands and band artists who cover other musical compositions. However, we believe that this contemptuous attitude indicates that these industry insiders have a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of competition in the entertainment industry. In a market economy, it is not the seller but the buyer who decides which products can compete. The quality of professional products is no better, or in line with the industry’s established norms, and can not guarantee that they will win in the competition. As long as your consumers don’t choose your product, they say they voted for your competitors. A lot of evidence shows that this is exactly the case in the entertainment industry. According to data collected by Nielsen Sound scan, the share of independent artists in the entire recording industry has increased from 25.8% in 2007 to 34.5% in 2014, and the industry share of independent artists has exceeded The share of any major record company. In the book publishing industry, we have also seen a similar situation. According to Joel Wardferg and Imk Reimers, the number of self-published books has increased by 300% between 2006 and 2012, and has exceeded the number of books published in traditional channels. In addition, we also see that of the 3.5 million e-book products sold on Amazon.com, there are 2 million independent authors on the Kindle direct publishing platform.
However, the industry with the most dramatic changes in consumer spending habits is still in the film industry. In particular, Millennials are more inclined to consume their own entertainment content, but not interested in professionally produced entertainment content. The Washington Post recently reported on such phenomena, saying that professionally produced entertainment products appear to be “more and more like serving the elderly.” The data from a series of recent studies and questionnaires is enough to give us a clear understanding of the seriousness of the problem: in 2013-2014, the median age of all TV show viewers was 44.4 years, while the audience of large TV networks The median age is 53.9 years old, which is 6% and 7% higher than four years ago. In 2002-2012, the frequency of young people going to the cinema to watch movies dropped by 40%. In 2002-2011, the live broadcast of primetime TV shows dropped by 50% in the audience of 18 to 49 years old. In the millennial population, one out of every four people stopped ordering cable TV programs, and one out of every eight people never ordered cable TV services. From 2010 to 2015, the proportion of viewers of TV shows dropped by 32% among people aged 18 to 24 (and the proportion of viewers of TV shows dropped by 1% in the 50-64 age group). In 2014, only 21% of 18-24 year olds said that they “can’t leave TV”, and in the overall population, 57% of those who claimed that they could not live without TV.
So what kind of entertainment content did these young viewers who gave up on TV turn to? That is the online entertainment content. In 2014, the coverage of YouTube on the 18-34 age group exceeded that of any cable TV network for the first time. In the 18-24 age group, the number of people claiming that “their life cannot leave the smartphone” rose from 22% in 2011 to 50% in 2014.
For large entertainment companies, the above changes in consumer behavior not only represent threats, but also symbolize opportunities. As we will discuss further in Chapters 10 and 11 of this book, we believe that these large entertainment companies can use online distribution channels in a variety of ways to create new ways to connect with consumer groups. . Similarly, these large entertainment companies can use new technologies and lower costs in their operations in a variety of ways. However, in many cases, to take advantage of these new opportunities, the existing business models of these companies and their business partners will be under heavy pressure, and how to deal with this pressure is destined to be a difficult for entertainment companies. task.
The most obvious example of this pressure is the change in downstream distribution technology. The new distribution technology not only allows artists to bypass the industry’s “goalkeepers” directly to reach the audience, but also allows the entertainment network to provide consumers with the network services they need at the time and place consumers want. This situation sounds quite good, however, the popularity of these new distribution channels poses a serious threat to the profitability of existing distribution channels for entertainment companies. Currently, executives in the entertainment industry face a very difficult choice, which is how to choose between existing business models (which are usually tied to their wages and bonuses) and the new model.
The emergence of new business opportunities has also complicated the relationship between large entertainment companies and upstream partners. For example, incorporating Volkswagen’s own entertainment into the entertainment company’s existing business processes is not as simple as it seems, and this change is difficult to accomplish in a seamless way. In many cases, netizens want to acquire certain entertainment content in certain ways, and hope to engage in a certain degree of participation and interaction. However, for large entertainment companies, this is provided to consumers under the existing business structure. Service is very difficult. In 2008, when ABC TV bought the popular online drama “In the Motherhood”, it faced such a dilemma. The online drama “The Way for Mother” was founded in 2007. The original intention of the drama was to produce a series of “created by mothers, created for mothers, and completely centered on mother’s life”, and established a related Parenting community. The premise of “Mother’s Way” is very simple. As the website of the show states, “Mom wants to make a voice and share the feelings and experiences that all mothers have together” (for example, your child is the most Your crazy behavior, etc.). All mothers can log in to the site to submit stories about their real life, and each story may be nominated by the “Web Mom Community”, “and then added to the content of the online drama through the touchdown”.
After the first season of “Mother’s Way” was broadcast on the Internet, the production team received strong support from Sihuafu and Sprint, and attracted many celebrities, including director Peter Raul. His masterpiece is “Arrested Development” Malcolm in the Middle Chappelle’s Show, and actors Jenny McCarthy, Chelsea Handler and Lia Remini Together, they have shaped three girlfriends’ mothers, “super crazy but full of humorous life.” The drama “Mother’s Way” was exclusively broadcast on the MSN website inthemotherhood.com, and the first season successfully attracted 5.5 million hits. The online community of the show became the 15th most popular website in the childcare website, with a total of 3,000 story submissions and 60,000 netizens voting.
ABC TV saw the great potential of the drama “The Way for Mothers” and purchased the copyright of the show in September 2008. In the first contract signed, ABC TV ordered a total of 13 new dramas and was scheduled to air on their own TV network. On March 11, 2009, in order to maintain the close relationship between the creation content of the drama and the online community, ABC TV invited mother netizens to submit their parenting stories through the ABC TV website. This incident attracted the intervention of the American writers’ union. The American Writers’ Union believes that ABC’s move is essentially to let viewers provide stories for free, and ABC’s contract with the union stipulates that all writers who write scripts for the TV station must be members of the American Screenwriters’ Union. The same status is paid accordingly. Neil Shacharo, a spokesperson for the American Screenwriters Union, said: “Our contract does not allow for this form of story collection. Our goal is not to limit the conduct of experimental behavior, but people should be paid accordingly if they pay for labor. “The standard for this “corresponding remuneration” is that the submitter of each story should receive at least the minimum remuneration set by the American Writers’ Union – $7,000.
“The Way for Mothers”
Two weeks later, ABC Television announced that it would stop collecting stories from the audience through the website and hand over the screenwriters to professional screenwriters inside the TV station. However, the talents and efforts of these professional screenwriters cannot replace the energy brought by real stories, nor can they replace the participation of real audiences. The first episode of the show was awkward, and ABC TV finally cancelled the entire episode during the first season of the show.
We believe that just an increase in the number of new works is enough to change the relationship between entertainment companies and online publishers. Since the beginning of the 21st century, due to the emergence of new technologies, creators and artists can independently produce entertainment works, and the number of entertainment works has grown by spurt every year. For example, the number of new books published each year has increased from 122,000 in 2000 to 3.1 million in 2010. In 2000-2010, the circulation of new albums in the same period of time has tripled. Now, on the YouTube site, an average of 300 hours of video per minute is uploaded. So how do consumers find what they like in these vast entertainments?
In the past, the power of discovery and screening was in the hands of large entertainment companies. Before consumers saw entertainment, entertainment companies have judged according to consumers’ preferences. Consumers have access to content filtered by entertainment companies. . But this top-down model has changed. The process of discovery and screening is increasingly occurring on downstream distribution platforms that bring together a large number of entertainment pieces, analysing consumers’ preferences and recommending directly to consumers what they might be interested in. However, due to the limitations of existing business models, large record companies, film companies and publishers are not fully prepared to exploit and exploit these new opportunities, so these new opportunities are being seized by a group of emerging network publishers, the loudest of which The name is of course Amazon.com, Netflix, YouTube and the iTunes store.