Geographical Image Community and Artistic Metaphor in the Greek Mythology Odysseus

Marx once said Greek mythology: “It is an art that uses imagination and imagination to conquer natural forces, dominates natural forces, and visualizes natural forces” [1][29]. This so-called “natural power” is transformed into a geographical imagery community. Literary space, like an invisible Greek cultural code hidden in the text, this cultural code is particularly prominent in the story of Odysseus. In the Odysseus story, the Greek people used wisdom to construct four geographical image communities with the core islands of Kukrops, Hell, the sea area, the Kalubudis, the sun god and the hometown Ithaca. It reveals and insinuates the wisdom and profound thinking of the ancient Greek people on wisdom and courage, the gods and destiny, restraint and reason, power and glory, and has a unique and profound artistic metaphor. These four geographical image communities are centered on the home of Ithaca, and they circle from the outside to the inside, symbolizing that the protagonist Odysseus “has gone abroad, suffering, experienced all kinds of adventures, and finally returned to his hometown” [ 2] [426-427] [426] The text space story is built.

This story is built in the same way as Mike Krone of the Department of Geography of the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. In the “Literature Geography”, “the spatial structure of this garden in literary works, their starting point is almost without exception, the loss of homeland, back The journey of the family is organized around a lost point of the original… So, the home space constructed in this structure can be regarded as a kind of fiction that traces the roots, a nostalgic feeling that remembers the lost origin. This, on the other hand, shows that literary description can reveal how space is organized. From this point of view, the meaning of space in literature is much more subtle and complicated than the meaning of place and scene.”[2] [426 -427] [427] The aftermath of the Krona’s words interprets the story of Odysseus, revealing how the space in the myth of Odysseus is organized, and how these spaces are defined by social behavior. The profound spatial significance of the geographical imagery community in Greek mythology is particularly important. Below, we will enter the four geographic image community spaces constructed by Odysseus’s story, explore the different literary spatial meanings and the artistic metaphors they have.

I. Heroism built around the island of Kukrops

The first literary space constructed by the Greek mythology Odysseus’s story begins with a geographical community centered on the desert island of Kukrops. On this desert island of Kukrops, Odysseus The heroes who led the triumphant return came to the place where they left the first boat after leaving Troy and began their journey back to their homeland. The desert island, as the beginning of their return journey, also opened up the acupoints of wisdom and courage in them, inspiring the heroism hidden in them.

On the desert island of Kukrops, a savage and cruel nation, they live in caves, live only with their wives and children, and do not interact with their neighbors. The heroes headed by Odysseus are full of curiosity about this nation. After landing, they explored a cave in the island. I didn’t expect the owner of this cave to be a Cyclops. When he came back, he was born with fire. , squeezed goat milk, and found Odysseus and others. For the intruders, the Cyclops issued a rude voice to question the origins of Odysseus and others. Odysseus came forward and told the Cyclops their origins, hoping that the Cyclops can fear the gods and protect and help them. Otherwise, the gods will punish him. The Cyclops listened only to a shuddering laugh, saying that Odysseus was a fool, saying that their family did not fear the gods, nor were they afraid of revenge, and then the Cyclops tore them apart for dinner, “like the mountains. The hungry lion devours its prey, not only eating their meat, but also eating the internal organs, licking the bones and sucking the bones.”[3][249-254] [249] Face this The ferocious Cyclops, Odysseus and others “only pleafully hold their hands and pray to Zeus. [3][249-254][249]” The giants slept with satisfaction and left the restless people heroes. Then the heroes headed by Odysseus launched a self-help activity. They made full use of the things in the cave to create various weapons, and chose hidden places to hide in order to avoid the killing of giants. Then the heroes actively mobilized their wisdom and acted with enough courage and fearless sacrifice. They fascinated the Cyclops with the wine they carried, and Odysseus shot the giant’s eyes and told the giant that his name was “no one”, causing the Cyclops to fail for help. After dawn, they borrowed from the cave to eat. The goat escaped from the cave by lurking under the goat’s stomach and escaped the killing and hunting of the Cyclops.

The Cyclops in the story is an incarnation of the alienal forces of human beings, symbolizing the ancient Greek heroes headed by Odysseus to conquer nature and return to the homeland to explore the beginnings of nature. It is unknown to humans in nature. The illusion of the unknown, the fear, the curiosity, and the exploration, so its image is one-eyed, tall, and powerful. The natural power of this one-eyed giant meets all human conjectures about the unknown, and it Its deserted island, Kukrops, has become a symbol of human involvement in the unknown. The ancient Greek people built the deserted island of Kukrops, a geography space full of unknowns and fears. It shows people’s tireless pursuit of the unknown world and the wisdom and courage unique to them. It proves that the ancient Greeks attach great importance to human wisdom and self-worth, and the construction of this space has highlighted the ancient Greeks. The spirit of heroism.

The actions of the heroes in the story with the Cyclops are all brave in the brave spirit of Plato’s praise of the Greek humanistic spirit in the “Imperial Kingdom”, that is, “the brave man.” Whether in distress or happiness, or in desire or fear, you will always maintain this belief without abandoning it.”[4][429] In the trepidation of the Cyclops and their bloody atrocities, the heroes Courage uses his fearless spirit to start his brains and come up with the idea of ​​being able to get out of safety safely. The design of the story is a symbol of the courage to overcome the alien power of the Cyclops on the desert island, highlighting the heroic beliefs of ancient Greeks who are eager to conquer nature and conquer the mysterious phenomenon. It also aims to convey that the ancient Greeks can face the suffering and death. And dare to dare to surpass the heroic spirit of suffering and death, and at the same time more to show the ancient Greeks’ admiration for wisdom and battle. In their heroic spirit, they are filled with a kind of national character, which is still martial and militant. This characteristic proves that the ancient Greeks had the consciousness of mobilizing and exerting their subjective initiative at an early stage. Differentiating people from nature makes people’s independence possible. Under the further catalysis of the spirit of independence, another kind of consciousness contained in the spirit of heroism is born, that is, the awakening of individual-based consciousness, which is the true core of heroism. In this kind of heroism, people are an independent individual and existence for all things in heaven and earth. They can overcome all alien and superhuman things, let themselves grow into heroes, grow into a capitalized “person”, and be in harmony with nature. All kinds of struggles realize their own meaning of life and self-worth, thus achieving both physical and spiritual growth and benefiting the entire human race. The above-mentioned heroic connotations are the significance of the ancient Greeks in the myth of Odysseus’s story to construct the geographical community space of the desert island Kukrops, which is the so-called one emphasized by Kron. The “literary geography space” in the true sense, that is, the heroic spiritual space built by the Kuluops space on the desert island, which is full of wisdom, courage, individual standard, death and A number of factors, such as suffering and conquest, are formed by them.

2. The concept of gods and destiny constructed with hell as the center

The geographical image space of hell can be said to be the most common space in Western literature. It is often a symbol of early warning. It can be found from the source of the trace that the beginning of the geographical image space of hell is the ancient Greek mythology. The story of Sri Lanka. In the middle of the home of Odysseus, after avenging and conquering the circus, Odysseus received the deity of the god Hermes, instructing him to go to the local government and go to the late Thebes. The prophet Tirissias asked about the future. So Odysseus and his entourage went to the end of the world to find the entrance to Hell’s coast. After the success, the story entered the geographical image space of hell. In Hell, Odysseus was alone. He took the sheep’s blood and finally saw Tirisias after passing through many ghosts. Tirissia immediately recognized Odysseus, right. He said: “Laer’s son, a resourceful son, how did you leave the sun and come to this terrible land? Please remove the sword and let me drink the blood of your sacrifice in the pit, I will tell “A lot of things about your future.” “Odysseus, you want me to tell you the gratifying news of returning to your hometown. But there is a god who is martyrdom, you can’t escape his palm. This is Poseidon. You not only pass Destroyed his protected city Troy, and recently poked the eyes of his son, Polyphymus, whose grievances have not been completely vented. Therefore, your return is full of dangers. But you don’t have to be disappointed, and you can still be heavy Return home. You will be landing in Trina Kaya, I hope you will not hurt the cattle and sheep there, they are the sacred cows and holy sheep that the sun god Apollo is captive. If you dare to hurt them, your boat and your friends will Will be destroyed Even if you are lucky enough to escape, you will be lonely and pitifully for many years. Finally, you will be brought back to your hometown of Ithaca by the ship of the foreigner. After returning home, you still have a lot of trouble because of arrogance and sinister marriage proposal. They are ruining your property, they want to get your wife Penelope, and have also framed your son. You have to use strategy or force to get rid of them. But shortly after the incident, you will continue to sail and go to An island, inserting the oars into the ground, offering Poseidon to Poseidon, praying for his forgiveness, and passing on your nautical knowledge to a strange alien, will calm the wrath of Poseidon, and then you will return to your hometown, your The kingdom will flourish, and you can live to the ages and live in a place far from the sea.”[3][249-254][254] After getting the gods, Odysseus died in the war between the mother and the Trojan. After returning to the world, the heroes will share these prophecies with their companions and continue their return.

In the geographical image community of Hell, the Greeks used the gods of Hell’s soul to predict the fate of Odysseus, fully demonstrating the unique view of destiny of the ancient Greeks. They believed that life is fatal. The human life survives and survives in the gods. The gods indicate the fate of the human being. Everyone who has born into the world has an unavoidable fate, that is, fate, which controls the fate of the human being, so the god is The consciousness of the ancient Greeks was sacred and should not be offended. But in the subconscious, the ancient Greeks also believed that although the fate is foretold by the gods, but people can add some possibilities to their own lives through the struggle against fate, and can delay the occurrence of fate as much as possible.

Russell once said: “In Greek religions and myths, what is truly religious is not Zeus or Cronus, but fate.” In the concept of gods and destiny built on the center of hell, there is more than just hidden. The unique view of the destiny of the Greeks reflects at the same time a mysterious religious color of the leucorrhea in their culture. This view of destiny, the color of the gods, implies a kind of death culture and life of the ancient Greeks. Living religious beliefs, people born with gods, lived with the gods’ hints, burdened with fate, spent their lives under their own actions and heavenly arrangements, and human subjective initiative can delay fate. The time node can’t change the fate of the fate. People can fight against it and gain a short victory in the struggle, but they can’t stop the original trend of fate. This fate looks negative but implies a religious life. Philosophy, which allows people to understand the power of life and death, has the energy to surpass life and death, and live to live up to the courage of life and death. These understandings are rational and rational, so Prince myth to the fighting spirit of the people and the white world mythology of the forest stand. The ancient Greek people used their literary myths to tell the world to respect the gods, to believe in the fate of the destiny, but to be brave in the struggle, the joy of life and the vividness of living, is to compete with the fate of the game, to get out of their own The road to life, although the god of destiny will set up a lot of traps and tests, but as long as we are not discouraged, do not compromise, courage, courage to explore, courage to open up, fate can not help, people will eventually defeat or delay the fate of life This is the god and the concept of fate built on the center of hell. The so-called “literary space” that we construct is the meaning of another.

Third, the restraint and rationality of the sea, Seymour, Caribodis, and the sun god

After bidding farewell to the warning journey of Hell’s deity, Odysseus is a group of people who will continue to move forward. They will experience a series of adventures. The coasts they have experienced are all kinds of attractive factors, all kinds of temptations. As long as you don’t pay attention, it is destruction when you are hooked by desire. They first approached the waters of the Serbs, and they had a heart-rending voice. As long as they were attracted, they would murder the sea. The heroes restrained the curiosity and listened to the gods and blocked the ears with wax. The instructions tied Odysseus to the mast, and no matter how Odysseus requested it, he did not dismiss him. Instead, he held it tighter, so the heroes used their reason and restraint to successfully resist the sorrow. Dangerous singing, successfully passed the waters of the Serb. But the ensuing is the more dangerous sea of ​​Carrubdis. There is a fierce and savage sea monster in the sea. It is a sea monster that cannot be killed. The only sensible way is to avoid it. Open it, so the heroes carefully drove the ship, but in the end there were six people buried in the hands of the Kraken. The heroes sensibly restrained their belligerent and grief heart, speeded up the speed, and passed the card. In the Dubdis waters, losses and casualties are minimized. Then I entered the third temptation, where the sun god Apollo stocked the holy cow and the holy sheep. This coastal scenery is beautiful and can easily remove all the defenses, but for the flocks of cattle and sheep, pleasant The scenery, the rationality and restraint of the heroes were deprived. After Odysseus fell asleep, the rest of the heroes forgot the warnings of the gods, and their hungry journey failed to restrain the appetite and kill. St. Niu Shengyang meets the desire of tongue and tongue, and eats and eats for six days. After leaving the country on the seventh day, the sun god Apollo demonstrated his power and launched a disaster. He and the sea god and Zeus created a huge tsunami to tear up the ships of Odysseus, except for Odysseus. The rest are swallowed up by the waves. In the final desire, except for Odysseus, the rest of the people were unable to control their desires, and they violated the gods in the loss of reason. They were finally punished by the gods and died miserably.

The reason why the ancient Greeks set the adventures of the sea, the Caybuddis, and the sun god is to show the great significance of restraint and reason to life. The restraint and reason contain people’s understanding and management of themselves. Only when people learn to control their own souls, can they achieve certain achievements and achieve their own goals. If they cannot control their own desires by reason, once the desires are out of control, they will suffer from disasters and punishments, and bring bitter consequences to themselves. , resulting in misfortune. This is the “literary text space” built by the geographical image community space dominated by the sea area, Calibudisi and the sun god, that is, the thinking of one’s desires, the restraint and the mind of the soul.

Fourth, the power and glory symbolized by the home of Ithaca

After a lot of hardships, Odysseus finally returned to his home with one’s own strength. However, the home is already a matter of people, entangled with various unclean factors, in order to eliminate these factors that obstruct their ability to regain power, in order to Picking up the sense of honor as the owner of the home, Odysseus squats in the joy of returning home, goes to the suburbs according to the gods, finds his servant and son, and mobilizes the excellent spiritual qualities he has gained on his way home. Arranged a series of strategies to recapture the lost home, the lost owner’s rights and glory. After a series of meticulous planning, Odysseus and his son and servant cleverly smashed and finally defeated all the benevolent proposers, reunited with his wife Penelope, and the family was able to reunite. After the whole country was returned to Odysseus, as the myth of the gods became more prosperous, Odysseus finally returned to his lost home after a series of hardships and hardships, and used his wisdom and courage. Responsible, rationally regaining everything that was originally owned by them, regaining the power and honor of the owner of the homeland, and fulfilling the life of the ancient Greek people, in line with all their imagined “people”, becoming the biggest winner and realizing people. Harmony with God, man and nature, forming a happy reunion. This is also a kind of “literary text spiritual space”—power and honor—that the ancient Greeks constructed indirectly the home of the geography image community centered on the hometown Ithaca.

DL Keynes said: “Honour has become a social phenomenon in Greece, a self-concept, a concept of mutual recognition, people are eager to get valuable self-images recognized by others.” [5][97-102] This sense of honor in the whole society of Greece stems from the defense of rights and the appreciation of honor. It is a moral belief that remains in the world, and is consciously recognized by members of the whole society. It must be said that this power and sense of honor The formation of the three wisdom concepts mentioned above also benefited from the power and honor. The heroism, the gods and the fate of the humanistic spirit in the Greek human spirit The premise of the spirit of resistance and the wisdom of life and wisdom based on restraint and rationality are in the same vein, and they are in harmony with the ancient Greek mythology, “the most noble and purest literary system with the highest humanity.” It has become the wisdom philosophy of life in which the world is convinced today.

The ancient Greeks savvyly used a series of geographical image community to indirectly, visually and intuitively present a “literary space” that belongs to the ancient Greek mythology text. The main framework in this literary space is life, people. The fate of the trend, the indirect structure is the spirit and quality that life needs. These spirits and qualities cover all the ancient Greeks’ wisdom about human beings: the heroic spirit of wisdom and courage, fatalism The shrine of destiny and destiny, the restraint and intellectual quality dominated by adventure and desire, and the right and honor that symbolize the achievements of life. The ancient Greek people used the short and fine literary texts of ancient Greek mythology to construct a spiritual space of literary texts belonging to the capital of “people”, and conveyed to the world the spiritual connotation of colorful and literary texts carried by geography, making ancient Greece The implication of mythology is more enriched, which is mapping and interpreting Kron’s statement in Literary Geography: “The text does not simply reflect the external world. The literary landscape is best seen as a combination of literature and landscape. It is not to regard literature as an isolated mirror, to reflect or distort the external world. Similarly, it not only provides an emotional response to an objective geographical knowledge. On the contrary, literature provides a way to view the world and show a series of interesting and empirical experiences. And the landscape of knowledge.”