Centennial Boeing on the cusp

To say the birth of Boeing, you have to start with William Boeing, the earliest “talker” in his family. On October 1, 1881, Boeing was born into a German immigrant family in Detroit. In 1903, after graduating from the Yale School of Engineering, he used the resources of the family to start the business of turning wood, and made a small fortune. Six years later, a group of flying pioneers drove to Los Angeles to “hit” and performed an air show, and Boeing, the rich man, was in the audience. At that time, the aircraft was born only a few years ago. It has not yet become a familiar thing for the masses of the people. It is only a “toy” of a few flying pioneers. After Boeing saw the air show, the heart was naturally excited. It was much more profitable to sell wood. When the plane landed, the Boeing in the audience couldn’t hold back anymore. He ran to the pilot’s suit and saw if the other party could take him to heaven and feel the very fashionable flight. But the pilot of that era can be more proud than now. I don’t know if it was a bad mood at the time, or if the second ancestor was not pleasing to the eye, and he refused without hesitation. The self-respect of the young Boeing’s overbearing president was greatly Injury, he has made up his mind to build a plane.

After all, Boeing has the foundation of the Yale Institute of Technology, and at the time it was considered a high-level intellectual. In order to build the plane, he learned to fly at the flight school run by Glenn Martin (later founded Martin and later incorporated into Lockheed Martin) and recruited 20 workers. In a simple work shed, Boeing relied on knocking and knocking out a seaplane, B&W. Strictly speaking, B&W is a copy of Martin’s seaplane. On June 15, 1916, Boeing drove B&W for the first test flight at Union Lake in Seattle. The flight test was very successful and the flight speed reached 120 kilometers per hour. It is a pity that B&W was originally intended to be sold to the US military. After all, they had money, but the plane failed to pass the test, and finally bought a flight school in New Zealand.

Although B&W did not benefit Boeing, he officially established a company, the Pacific Aircraft Manufacturing Company, the predecessor of Boeing, a month later. Since B&W is only a copy of Martin’s seaplane, Boeing hopes that the second plane will have something of its own. However, Boeing knew that it was definitely not enough to design a plane from the beginning. So he invited a Chinese named Wang Zhu as the first chief engineer with a salary of 80 US dollars per month. Soon, Wang Zhu improved on the basis of B&W and designed a seaplane. This is Boeing’s first mass production aircraft, the C-type machine. It was taken by the US military and ordered 50. Boeing has successfully earned the first pot of gold. We returned to Wang Zhu, although the chief engineer was not allowed to participate in many tests. The reason is that foreigners cannot be allowed to steal advanced aviation technology. The problem is that this aircraft is designed by others. So Wang helped resolutely return to the country to build a plane, which directly rewritten the history of modern Chinese aviation. In addition, he also brought out a large number of students, among them – the name is Qian Xuesen.

After the end of the First World War, a large number of military aircraft were of no use. The US military’s sharp drop in orders caused Boeing to break a lot of money. For a while, Boeing even went to the point where it could only live by furniture and cows. However, the Boeing, which is good at business, has created another way to create another aviation-related business, the airmail business. In 1919, when Boeing and Eddie Hubbard used the C-type machine to open the route between Seattle and Vancouver, they also smashed dozens of e-mails. The e-mails became the first air on the planet. mail. The flight is significant, and it means that Boeing has entered the field of civil aviation.

In addition to the airmail business, in the United States in the 1920s, transportation to and from the European continent and the American continent was not a cruise or an airship. The cruise ship doesn’t say much, everyone is familiar with it. The airship is different. It is actually a big cigar-shaped balloon filled with flammable and explosive hydrogen. It is for this reason that the airship gradually faded out of sight after the “Xingdeng Airport crash”. Even so, the demand for civil aviation is still increasing rapidly. Boeing clearly recognizes this trend and has created a pioneering work in the history of civil aviation, the Type 247. Due to the comfortable seating on the aircraft and the toilet, it is widely used as the main model of civil aviation. In addition, one more sentence, the stewardess is the envy of the golden woman, let the mature woman control crazy career is born on the 247 machine. After the 247, Boeing also introduced a 307-type aircraft with a flying height up to the stratosphere called the Stratospheric Plane, which is used to travel between Europe and the Americas.

At the end of the 1920s, Boeing relied on the 247 machine to carry out a wide range of civil aviation business. It has become more and more large and earned more and more. It is no longer the cottage factory when it was founded. In order to seek greater development, it established a joint aircraft and transportation company through acquisition and merger in 1929. The new company can not only manufacture aircraft, but also provide shipping services, and realize a one-stop service from the factory to the terminal. It is not too much to describe it with the aviation empire. Of course, this also allowed Boeing, the “emperor” of the aviation empire, to earn more money. However, the good times did not last long. Under the intervention of the Antitrust Act of 1934, Boeing’s aviation empire was short-lived and forced to be dismantled, splitting the joint aircraft and transportation company into Boeing Aircraft Corporation, United Aircraft Corporation and United Airlines. United Aircraft Corporation is today’s United Technologies Corporation, which, like Boeing, is part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and United Airlines is the top three airline on the planet. In the face of the aviation empire that he established himself was ruthlessly dismembered, Boeing’s mood is naturally not much better. He didn’t do anything, he simply resigned all the positions of Boeing, and he will hold all the stocks. Cash out, vowed to no longer contact Boeing. By relying on the money to sell stocks, Boeing really lived the life of the second ancestor, and became a big landlord, raising a purebred horse. Although Boeing left, Boeing began a new development under the leadership of his “Ph…p Johnson” and Claire Ectvedt.

After being dismantled by the “Antitrust Act”, the days of Boeing are naturally not as good as before. In particular, the United States suffered a century-long economic crisis in the 1930s. In order to survive, Boeing was busy making civil aviation aircraft, and it was not idle for the development of military aircraft. On July 28, 1935, Boeing first flew the Model 299. This is a long-range heavy bomber designed for the US military. It was called the B-17 after it was finalized. At first, the US military did not buy a lot of B-17, Boeing only earned a few “rice money.” However, with the outbreak of the Second World War, the US military not only equipped B-17 in large quantities, but also the US government exported B-17 to many countries under the “rental bill”, so Boeing’s orders have not been broken, earning Full of pots. By 1943, the United States began to indiscriminately bombard the German mainland, and 98% of the bombings were completed by B-17. However, the fighters that escorted the B-17 at that time could not be escorted throughout the journey due to the voyage. Therefore, when bombing, often after the B-17 entered Germany, the escort fighters turned around and flew away. The B-17 only relied on high-altitude flights to complete the bombing. Later, the Germans discovered the weakness of B-17, and they took long-line fishing for big fish. After the B-17 did not have a fighter escort, they ate one by one.

In 1966, when Pan American Airlines did not even see the shadow of the 747, it gave Boeing a deposit of 550 million US dollars and was ready to buy 20 747s. Although Pan American Airlines is so generous at one time, Tripp, as a “handle”, is not a fuel-efficient lamp: since I have paid a deposit of 550 million US dollars, I have to ask Boeing for your request. —747 must be delivered within 3 years. That is to say, Boeing will complete the design, final assembly, flight test and verification of the 747 by the end of 1969. Seeing Pan Am’s crazy handwriting on the 747, other airlines quickly followed up and threw a wink at Boeing, expressing their desire to buy a 747. In this way, the 747 has already achieved great success in the sales of civil aircraft when it has not yet appeared.

The time left for Boeing is only three years, and the time is tight and the task is heavy! But the 747 is a big guy, and the width of the cabin is almost twice that of the 707. Boeing’s existing factories can’t do the final assembly. As a result, the Boeing Company made a bloody book and built another assembly plant in Seattle. The construction plan of the new assembly plant was carried out at the same time as the final assembly of the 747. When more than 50,000 Boeing employees were rushing for 3-16 months, the first 747 was finally off the assembly line. The assembly plant has not yet been capped. However, at the time the 747 was still an empty shell, and even the core of the aircraft – the engine was not ready. To make a big aircraft like the 747 fly to the sky, if you use the 707 engine, you must install at least eight. This kind of design is not only complicated, but the sensible fuel consumption can’t be considered, so the 747 must adopt a new type of engine. Originally, Boeing was looking for General Electric to settle the matter, but at that time General Electric’s TF39 engine was only available to the C-5, and there was no time to take care of Boeing. Boeing had no choice but to ask for Pratt & Whitney, and hoped that they could get the engine out. Pratt & Whitney Company looked at the Boeing Company for help, and immediately put the JT-9D engine in its hands. It seems that the key time is still from the family. (If it was not the anti-trust bill of 1934, the Puhui company may still be Boeing’s focus on building engines). The performance of the JT-9D is not inferior to that of the TF39, and it is also a large thrust engine. However, compared with the latter, the former is a new design, and no aircraft has been used yet. Boeing has become the first to eat crabs, taking no small risk. In February 1969, Boeing was all ready, and the 747 made its first test flight. Under the control of the chief test pilot Jack Waddel, the “Airborne Big Mac” vacated and took off the blue sky of Seattle.

Since the prototype of the 747 was a cargo plane, the first ball cone on the original machine was designed with a trick that could be lifted up overall. As a passenger plane, this trick is not necessary. However, in order to ensure the smoothness and integrity of the cargo hold, Boeing moved the cockpit to the upper deck and made a “package” on the 747. It is precisely because of this that the large cabin designed to facilitate loading and unloading of goods can now accommodate 3+4+3 seating arrangements. This seating arrangement has become a widely adopted standard for civil aircraft, which means that wide-body aircraft usually have double corridors. The original 747-100, 747-200 and 747-300 could only carry 366 passengers, and by the time of the 747-400, it could load 416 passengers by lengthening the fuselage, which is more than twice that of the 707. It is for this reason that the emergence of the 747 accelerated the elimination of the 707, and even the “Air Force One” was replaced by the Boeing 747 (military model VC, 25). Finally, in the 1970s, Boeing formed a new system of high and low 737+747, which has been used in major airlines at home and abroad.

For the US military, if it was the world of B-17 and B-29 before the 1950s, then it should be regarded as the world of B-52. In the aviation era of jet propulsion, Boeing first built a long-range jet bomber, the B-47, for the US military. The aircraft is very special in shape and uses a swept-back type to hoist the engine. This form of layout not only affected the Boeing aircraft of several generations in the future, but even the planes of other companies were not affected by it. Today we can see the shadow of B-47 on many planes. Although the design of the B-47 was very advanced at the time, due to the lack of thrust of the engine, the rocket was used for each takeoff. In order to solve this problem. In 1952, Boeing developed on the basis of the B-47 and designed the B-52 of eight engines. The bomb load of the B-52 is about 30 tons. It is used from the aviation bombs of conventional weapons to the atomic bombs of strategic weapons. However, it is also the excellent performance of the B-52, and later the US military believes that the missile is cheaper than the bomber. Therefore, the production of a plane has been nearly 50 years. Until today, it is still the main force of the US military’s long-range conventional bombing and strategic bombing.

Boeing had nothing new on the bomber. The operation on the transport plane was also very bleak. In several bids, it was not lost to Lockheed C-5, but it was lost to McDonnell Douglas C-17. Even the famous KC-135, RC-135, E-3 and E-8, they are only modified on the basis of the 707. If you have to find a positive example for Boeing, then this representative is in the field that Boeing is not good at – the rotorcraft. Boeing designed a CH-47 helicopter with a very strange layout. The helicopter, named after the Indian tribe “Chinook”, uses a longitudinally arranged double-rotor design. When flying, the two rotors rotate in opposite directions to counteract the torque while generating lift. Once the US military tested it, it was found that the helicopter looked a bit strange, but it was a quick and good province to do it. The CH-47N is loaded with 30 to 55 soldiers or nearly 25 tons of materials. Because of its excellent performance, the CH-47 was exported to many countries. Of course, the biggest buyer of this type of helicopter is still the same as the British and its allies.

Although it seems that Boeing has made a lot of money in the 40 years since the birth of the 747, at the time, because the design of the 747 was too expensive, even if Pan American gave 550 million US dollars in advance, Boeing still posted it. Less old. Counting up and down, the 747 spent a total of 770 million US dollars in Boeing, almost let it be on the verge of bankruptcy, and even to borrow from the bank to live. In order to get out of the woods, Boeing has expanded its business from the aerospace sector to the civilian sector (similar to what we often call “military transfer to the people”), from industry to agriculture, from light rail to repairing power plants from phone to computer… What does Boeing do? In addition, Boeing is also trying to sell the aircraft, but also on the NASA big money – to participate in the traveler program. After hard work, Boeing ushered in the “Golden Decade” of the 1980s.

Throughout the 1980s, Boeing sold new 737s and 747s while developing new civil aircraft. It was designed at the time when the 757, which can carry 200 to 250 passengers, the 767, which was often converted into a government or military, and the 777, which was widely used in new technology, were dragged to the test in the early 1990s. Although Boeing established its position in the “Golden Lakes” of civil aviation aircraft in the “Golden Decade” of the 1980s, the manufacture of civil aircraft itself is a high-return industry, with the exception of Boeing, many companies. I want to share a piece of it. Among the many leaders, Airbus from Europe is undoubtedly the most powerful one. Airbus was formed in 1970 by aerospace companies in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain. Its main purpose is to deal with the monopoly of Boeing and McDonnell Douglas in civil aircraft. After 20 years of development, it has launched the A300, A310, A319, A320, A330 and A340 models of civil aviation aircraft. In particular, the A320 launched for the 737 and the A340 for the 747 have eroded many Boeing companies. market share.

The bombing of Boeing and Airbus continued from the 1980s to the 1990s, although it remained firmly in the position of the civil aviation aircraft leader. But Airbus has grown a little. However, at this time, the days of Mai Dao Company were deteriorating, especially in the case of civil aviation aircraft. Not only did they not sell well, but also caused several accidents due to quality problems. At one time, the debt of Mai Dao Company was high. Seeing such a situation, Boeing is not stupid. Although Mai Dao Company is not very good at civil aviation aircraft, military aircraft are still very good. The powerful fighters like F-15 and F/A-18 are all out of the house. of. So in 1997, Boeing acquired Mai Dao Company in the form of a stock exchange of 13 billion US dollars. The name of the new company is Boeing. In this way, in addition to continuing to dominate the civil aircraft, Boeing can also be a world leader in military aircraft (the other two are Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman). Since then, the McDowell Company, which has been famous since DC-3, has disappeared. The only thing left in the civil aviation plane is the 717 (that is, the Boeing model of MD-95). Although Boeing’s acquisition of Mai Dao Company is intended to reverse the fiasco in the military aircraft field and strengthen its voice, the cruel reality has given it a head start – the US military’s next-generation fighter, the F-22 contract, was Lockheed Martin took it away. Even so, the Camel Company has left the AH-64, F-15 and F/A-18 models for the Boeing Company because of the slimming camel than Ma Da. These active fighters also have a large number of orders for maintenance, repair, parts production and modernization, which can already guarantee a steady stream of profits, so Boeing has not only lost money in the acquisition of Mai Dao Company, but also somewhat earned.

After entering the new century, the latest models of the 737 and 747, Boeing, continue to produce, but they have been in existence for more than 30 years, and it is time to introduce new ones. Faced with this situation, Boeing launched the Yellowstone project, the core of which is to launch a new system of high and low collocation civil aircraft. In this system, Boeing plans to design three aircraft, Y1, Y2 and Y3. These aircraft will feature rugged composite materials, digital fly-by-wire control systems and lower fuel consumption engines. Among them, the Y1 is designed to carry 100 to 200 passengers. It is used to replace the 717 and 737:Y2 designs with 200 to 300 passengers. It is used to replace 757 and 767; Y3 is designed to carry 300 to 600 passengers. To replace 747, 777. At present, Y2 has been mass-produced, which is the 787. It has achieved unprecedented success in both market and technology. However, Y1 has not been moving for a long time. Boeing can only take out the 737MAX to withstand. However, the product produced by patching, the bug is an accessory that cannot escape, but I did not expect that this two planes crashed. Perhaps this is the price of Boeing’s arrogance.

Looking back at the development of Boeing for more than 100 years, without the proud pilot, perhaps there is no Boeing company; if there is no World War II, there may be no production of B-1712731: if there is no C-X competition failure Maybe there is no 747 success. If this crash can help Boeing correct its attitude, and then create a better aircraft. But we really don’t want a bright future to come from such a cruel reality, it’s not worth it.