Bladder tumor is one of the common tumors in urology. The triangle, bladder neck and bladder are the most common sites. In malignant tumors, the incidence of bladder tumors is as high as 20%, and the incidence of men is higher than that of women. Bladder tumors are divided into benign and malignant, but mostly malignant. Therefore, understanding the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer is essential for prevention and early detection of the disease.
The pathogenesis is not completely determined
The pathogenesis of tumor bladder is very complicated and has not yet been fully determined. The study suggests that it may be related to the following factors:
Frequent smoking Among many bladder cancer patients, many have bad habits of smoking. Long-term smoking has many adverse effects on the body, and there are obstacles in the function of the internal organs of the body, which may also cause cancer. Therefore, everyone should pay more attention to the dangers of smoking.
Occupational bladder cancer, which is often exposed to chemicals, is also associated with occupational exposure. Nowadays, the society is constantly developing, and there are many manufacturing factories. People in the textile, rubber manufacturing and paint industries always have to touch some chemicals. Over time, they will increase the chance of suffering from bladder cancer.
Diseases such as bladder irritation. When we accidentally develop bladder irritation, bladder stones and other diseases, the bladder will be stimulated, and prolonged stimulation will increase the probability of bladder cancer.
Genetic bladder cancer has a certain relationship with heredity. People with a family history are generally more likely to have bladder cancer than ordinary people.
Be alert to the appearance of painless gross hematuria
The study found that the incidence of bladder cancer increased with age over 40 years of age. Most patients with bladder cancer are over 60 years old. Therefore, some scholars suggest that people over the age of 40 should be alert to the occurrence of bladder cancer, especially when hemorrhea and other symptoms are found, he should go to the hospital in time.
The most common symptom of hematuria and bladder cancer is hematuria, which is visible to the naked eye without any sensation. This is a unique “urinary abnormality signal” of bladder cancer, which occurs in almost every bladder cancer patient. About 85% of bladder cancer patients therefore Visiting a doctor. There are two kinds of hematuria, one is gross hematuria, and the other is microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria refers to blood-colored urine that can be directly viewed by the eye. Microscopic hematuria refers to the presence of red blood cells under the microscope. Bladder cancer hematuria is mostly painless and intermittent, most of them are whole-course hematuria, a few are terminal hematuria, with frequent urination, urgency, hematuria is less common.
Dysuria is difficult to cause obstruction due to the loss of cancerous tissue to the mouth of the bladder, which may lead to dysuria and even urinary retention.
Urinary urinary urgency, urinary pain, cancer tissue infection, ulcers, etc. can cause irritation to the bladder muscles, which in turn causes them to contract to produce urine. Patients may experience frequent urination, urgency, and dysuria, accompanied by a feeling of lumbar pain.
When the tumor infiltrates into the muscular layer, the patient may experience pain symptoms. When the cancer infiltrates the ureteral orifice, it may lead to the occurrence of renal pelvis and ureteral water, and induce different degrees of fever, lumbar pain, and even acute renal function. Depletion. As the cancer expands, after reaching the pelvic cavity and rectum, symptoms such as rectal irritation and low back pain are induced.
Systemic symptoms of systemic symptoms are fever, anemia, weight loss, poor appetite, nausea and so on.
Immunotherapy or bring hope
It is estimated that bladder cancer has already accounted for the first incidence of urinary tract cancer in China. About 10% of bladder cancer patients are already in advanced stage at diagnosis, and bladder cancer patients usually have poor prognosis, and 5-year survival rate of advanced patients Less than 5%.
The current treatment plan for bladder cancer in China is mainly chemotherapy, but the curative effect is limited. The long-term use is prone to drug resistance, and severe side effects greatly affect the quality of life of patients, and the prognosis is still not ideal. In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has achieved remarkable results, and many clinical studies have confirmed that tumor immunotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with cancer and prolong the survival of patients. For patients with advanced bladder cancer, PD-L1 immunotherapy is a new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy that is now receiving much attention. PD-L1 is a protein involved in the inhibition of the immune system. After it is hijacked by bladder cancer cells, it becomes its own “invisibility cloak”, which makes the immune system unable to recognize cancer cells and thus cannot attack cancer cells. Over time Cancer is progressing.