It is difficult to lose weight in controlling appetite. Why is the appetite so difficult to control? It’s not entirely because of hungry, but because the food is so delicious, a good dish with good color and flavor will make a person who has already eaten can’t help but pick up the chopsticks again.
Many of human diets, especially the habit of eating snacks, are due to the temptation of delicious food rather than nutritional needs. The taste is dependent on the taste buds on the tongue. There are about 10,000 taste buds on the tongue, and each taste bud is only responsible for one taste. Chinese people like to say “five flavors”, which is sweet, sour, bitter and salty. But until now, scientists don’t think that spicy is a category of taste, but rather as a strong stimulus. In recent years, a new taste bud has been identified. This is “fresh”, and MSG is a typical “savory” substance. Therefore, the five flavors recognized by scientists are sweet, sour and bitter.
In November last year, French scientists discovered a new taste bud that was designed to feel the taste of fat. In fact, people have long put forward the hypothesis that there is a fat taste bud on the tongue, but there is no conclusive evidence. Philippe Besnard, a nutritionist at the University of Burgundy in France, and his team have developed a genetically deficient mouse whose gene encoding the CD36 protein has been artificially removed. Originally there was a large amount of CD36 protein present on the surface of the tongue.
Besnard compared the eating habits of normal mice with this genetically modified mouse. He found that mice without CD36 protein were not interested in fatty foods at all, and ordinary mice were blind people who saw fat. What’s even more amazing is that as soon as the ordinary mouse tastes the taste of fat, the stomach will immediately begin to secrete the fat digestive juice, and the small intestine will immediately begin to prepare for the absorption of the upcoming fat. The mice lacking the CD36 protein did not have this reaction at all, indicating that CD36 is closely related to the fat metabolism of mice.
The mouse’s taste system is basically the same as that of humans, so Besnard speculates that humans have similar fat taste buds on their tongues, responsible for making humans like fat-containing foods and initiating human fat metabolism.
Fat is the highest heat content of all foods. At the same weight, the heat content of fat is about twice that of starch. Therefore, eating fat is a cost-effective task for wild mice that are always hungry, and of course advocate. However, for people living in developed countries, the desire for fat has brought about significant side effects. Besnard believes that if scientists understand the mechanism of CD36 in the future, they can produce drugs that inhibit CD36, or produce “fake fat” that specifically stimulates CD36. At that time, weight loss will become easier. People can eat this delicious “fake fat” every day, but they won’t gain weight.
This example tells us that many of the physiological functions of human beings have evolved over many years of hard life, and the time for human society to enter industrialization is actually very short, so these physiological functions are temporarily unable to adapt to the requirements of the new era. For example, the production of taste is very important for the primordial people who drink blood in the early stage. The acid and salty feeling is closely related to the balance of body fluids, so excessive acidity and saltiness will bring unpleasant feeling. Most of the bitter foods are toxic, so they basically belong to a nasty taste. Sweetness represents sugar. This is the most important source of human calories. It must be encouraged, so sweetness is a good taste in most cases. The umami taste is the taste of protein, and of course it is a good taste. Human beings are not afraid of sweetness and umami, because sugar and protein are essential for survival, so be sure to store more.
Another similar example is diabetes. The incidence of diabetes in the American Indian population has been high. For example, a member of the Indian tribe named Pima has a diabetes incidence of more than 50%, and almost all diabetics are fat. Historical data shows that in the past, the Pima people rarely got diabetes, which is a typical “modern disease.” In 1962, a geneticist named James Neel proposed a “frugal gene” theory that the Pima Indians used to rely on the sky for the past, and they often faced long periods of time. I can’t eat anything. So they evolved a more extreme form of metabolism, and their ability to store fat was particularly strong. Analytical research shows that only 15% of their food was fat in the 19th century, and currently 40% of their food is derived from fat. Their metabolism is completely unable to adapt to this sudden situation, thus causing diabetes. High incidence.
For humans in most parts of the world, there is a long process of change in living conditions, so we have to adapt better than the Pima. However, humans still need to face new problems brought about by the new era. Overeating is the most obvious one.
Why is it so difficult to lose weight?
Because you are fighting against instinct, or in other words, your opponent is a history of millions of years of evolution, its power is very powerful.