In recent decades, the Chinese have called “Dream of Red Mansions”, “Water Margin”, “Journey to the West”, and “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” as “four great masterpieces”. How can these four ancient Chinese novels be famous? “The History of the Scholars”, “Strange Tales from a Lonely Studio”, “The Sea of Flowers”… Which one is not? The difference is in this “big” – great. The four famous works represent the highest achievements of Chinese traditional culture in novels. They are the most familiar and favorite art masterpieces of all walks of life in China, like four mirrors, reflecting some of the cultural and psychological characteristics of the Chinese.
Dream of the Red Chamber
Reflecting the Chinese
’s elegant taste, “Dream of Red Mansions” absorbs the most elegant expressions of Chinese people – poetry, lyrics, songs and Fu Fu – and fully utilizes all aspects of Chinese classical culture – architecture, food, gardens and paintings. The taste of the classic novel can not be reached. Therefore, this book is not only a literati must see, Chairman Mao also let the general Xu Shiyou have time to look at it.
How do foreigners read this book? Wu Qunqi, the first president of the Dream of Red Mansions, gave a Czech student a one-on-one talk about the “Dream of Red Mansions” one year. After the students finished their studies, they asked: “Mr. Wu, I have figured out all the problems in “Dream of Red Mansions”. There is only one problem that I have not figured out. There are so many treasures in the Grand View Garden, why are Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu not fleeing?”
Coincidentally, Ma Ruifang, a professor at Shandong University, once told a Japanese student about “Dream of Red Mansions”. She said “Immediately and quietly, Yushengxiang”, the student was puzzled and asked: “Teacher, you always say Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu. Love is inconclusive, it is a great tragedy. Is there any tragedy? Can you see that this section of Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu are not already in bed?”
Why do international students have such bizarre problems? In the end, they didn’t understand how Baodi love is going. The key to not understanding is that they look at the elegant attitude of life from the perspective of the world. The love in “Dream of Red Mansions” is as clean and untouched as it is, and it is as beautiful as its words. No wonder the red scientist Jiang Hesen said that China can have no Great Wall, but there can be no “Dream of Red Mansions”.
Reflecting the chivalry of the Chinese
Righteous, Yi also. In the eyes of the Chinese, doing justice is what you should do. This can be deeply felt in the first half of the Water Margin, especially Lu Zhishen.
Tang Junyi said in “The Spiritual Value of Chinese Culture”: “The spirit of chivalry is fair by the heart of the house, to be unfair, to be straightforward, and to be smooth.” And to “stretch the world’s music, so that thousands of miles away, Wenfeng Mu Yue.” The Chinese have spared no effort in appreciating the righteousness, and the expectations of the righteous are the same.
The big enemy of righteousness is money. Wu Song killed the tiger with bare hands, which is brave, and justice is reflected in his attitude towards money. At that time, the magistrate decided to give the 1000 yuan of the reward to Wu Song. The highest prime minister of the Song Dynasty civil servants, the highest privilege of the military officers, the monthly salary of 300. Wu Song is not a rich man, but he heard that some hunters have not completed the task of killing the tiger on time, and they have taken a lot of boards, so Wu Song will distribute all 1000 to the hunters. Similarly, Song Jiang, Chai Jin, and Qi Gai are all taking the money and taking it seriously. People have demands, I help; people do not ask, should help, I also help.
Another big enemy of righteousness is color. The role of beauty in “Water Margin” is temptation, threat, and the heroes simply kill. This is inseparable from the author’s values, but in the mainstream of Chinese traditional culture, chivalry and female color are basically insulated.
Journey to the West
Reflecting the beliefs of the Chinese
Journey to the West does not respect Buddhism. Xuanzang went to the Daleiyin Temple to ask for the scriptures. Two assistants of the Buddha – Ananda and Kaye and the mentoring and apprentices. No? Sorry, you can only take no words. The mentor and the apprentice are looking for a review. For example: In the past two days, some of us have gone down to practice things for others, and we have received three buckets of three liters of rice gold. You should give something to learn from it. Describe the supreme leader of Buddhism as a city.
Journey to the West does not respect Taoism. Many monsters appear in the face of Taoist priests, and some are still “national teachers” and “national masters”. They fly and swear, abuse the sorcerer and harm the people.
The two major religions were depreciated in Journey to the West, reflecting the fact that there is no fixed belief in the traditional national character of the Han nationality. Qian Wenzhong, a professor at Fudan University, said that the Han people lack awe in their faith and only believe in things that can bring benefits to themselves. From the setting of the Tang dynasty’s apprentices, we can see the ideal state of the Han people’s expectations.
The sand monk is doing all the heavy work, and what benefits can finally be caught, but this honest man has no status in Tang Yan’s eyes. Sun Wukong has the ability, but he is not tamed, but he can seek the law on the west. It depends on his disaster relief. What should he do? Hold the spell.
The pigs are the most comfortable, the burden is mainly the sand monk pick, the fight is mainly Sun Wukong. Tang Hao is always very considerate of the Pig Eight Rings. What he said, Tang Yan generally believes. Such a lazy, opportunistic person is very popular with Shangfeng. This shows that the Han people are very envious of such a state of life: irresponsible, interests are all.
Reflecting the Chinese people’s view of the world
Liangshan heroes are full of heroism, and the characters of the Three Kingdoms more reflect a kind of “national affairs.” The Romance of the Three Kingdoms does not pay much attention to daily life, family relations, and ethics. For example, Cao Cao has several ladies, where is the family, what is Guan Yu’s daughter-in-law, and whether there are sisters… Luo Guanzhong did not explain, because he cares about the world. Great things, social life. This concern is linked to the survival and development of the Chinese nation and the love and blood of the people.
The eight entries in “University” are the highest in the world. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms embodies the Chinese nation’s pursuit of national unity and longing for peace and stability.
Among the ancient civilizations of the world, Chinese civilization has never been interrupted. Why? The Romance of the Three Kingdoms said that this is because the Chinese nation has long formed a national psychology of longing for reunification and longing for stability. This kind of psychology is so strong that it has become China’s largest cohesive force. For thousands of years, the Chinese nation has been separated more than once, but every time the Chinese split, the Chinese always achieve new unity with perseverance and great sacrifice.
”Romance of the Three Kingdoms” wrote the world chaos, the group and the heroes, Cao, Liu, Sun stand out. Although the novel has different attitudes towards these three families, Zun Liu has a flaw in Cao Cao and has a discussion on Sun Quan. But the novel fully affirms the commonality of the three families, that is, to see the world and the unity. After the erection, no one is satisfied, and everyone must continue to pursue the unity of the country. Unification is the consensus of the Chinese people. It has long been printed in the bones, flowing in the blood, and it has never changed.